Tag Archive: religious devotion


Woke up to a Solstice Wonderland this morning

Waking up to a Solstice Wonderland this morning

First off, I’d like to wish you all a Happy Solstice and Blessed Yule!  This is a liminal and very magical time of year that our Northern European ancestors took very seriously – celebrating it with feasting, drinking, gift giving, sacrificing and rest from work.  They knew the sun would be returning to warm the earth and the promise of spring and summer would be arriving soon…

The 12 Days of Yule also seemed to be a very auspicious time of year in which oaths were taken the most seriously and binding.  It was and is also still a time to reflect upon resolution – reconciling old debts and giving up that which no longer serves you now and in the new year to come.

Our Solstice started out this morning with aspersing ourselves with water and smudging with sage and lavender.  Offerings of oats was given to the Earth Mother, apple cider to the Nature Spirits, beer to the Ancestors and whiskey to the Shining Ones.

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Offering of oats, cider, beer and whiskey

We charged a gold candle with our “love wishes” of peace, love, happiness and thanks for our blessings (and unicorns – my daughter was especially thankful for unicorns, but hey, who isn’t?).  The candle stayed lit all day and is just now going out – well past sundown.

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Gold candle to symbolize the Sun

This was followed up with an offering of a make shift “Yule Log”.

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Make shift Yule Logs

Happy Solstice!

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As I was browsing the Internet later on this afternooon, I came across an article entitled the “12 Days of Yule Devotionals – Prayers for the Winter Solstice” by Patti Wigington.  She wrote, “The winter solstice is a time of reflection, during the darkest and longest night of the year. Why not take a moment to offer up a prayer on Yule? Try a different devotional each day to give you food for thought during the holiday season.”  I really love this idea!

On the 1st day of Yule, the first devotional is the Earth.  “Just because the earth is cold doesn’t mean there’s nothing going on down there in the soil. Think about what lies dormant in your own life right now, and consider what may bloom a few months from now.

Foggy-Winter-Night-on-River-1680x1050-wide-wallpapers.net

Cold and dark, this time of year,
the earth lies dormant, awaiting the return
of the sun, and with it, life.
Far beneath the frozen surface,
a heartbeat waits,
until the moment is right,
to spring.” ~ Patti Wigington

I think this would be fabulous to do upon arising every morning – perhaps with the lighting of a candle and making an offering (i.e. an offering of oats or cornmeal to the Earth or with whatever seems appropriate to you).

Goddess Tonatzin

“Tonatzin’s themes are religious devotion and blessings. Her symbols are soil and light.  An ancient mother figure who nurtures people and all that dwells in the land, Tonatzin is the life and light of the world. Today She joins our festival as the originator of this holiday, Tonatzin.

Juan Diego, a Native American convert, was surprised when this Goddess appeared to him in 1531 in an ancient site of pagan worship and requested that the temple be rebuilt [Basilica of Guadalupe]. Juan Diego believed this apparition was Mary, and therefore he did as She commanded. To this day, people come here at this time of the year for the Goddess’s blessing.

While most of us cannot travel to Mexico just to implore Tonatzin, there is nothing that says we can’t honor and invoke Her at hour own home. Light a candle or lamp and place before it a potted plant or bowl of soil. This configuration represents Tonatzin’s presence in your home throughout that day. From here She can illuminate the shadows and generate the light of hope and joy for all whose who live here.

Carry a seed and some soil wrapped in a green cloth with you today. Name the seed after any earth quality you want to develop in your life, such as strong foundations or emotional stability. When you get home, put the seed and soil in a planter or your garden. Tonatzin’s magic is there to manifest growth for the seed and your spirit!”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Tonantsin Renance” mural by Colette Crutcher and the Instituto Pro Musica de California

“In Aztec mythology and among present-day Nahuas, Tonantzin ‘Our Revered Mother’ is a general title bestowed upon female deities. Informants of Sahagún, for example, called a frightening Goddess of war and childbirth, Cihuacoatl, by this title. The title is particularly believed to refer to Mother Earth.

Goddesses such as ‘Mother Earth’, the ‘Goddess of Sustenance’, ‘Honored Grandmother’, ‘Snake’, ‘Bringer of Maize’ and ‘Mother of Corn’ can all be called Tonantzin. Other indigenous names include Chicomexochitl (‘Seven Flowers’) and Chalchiuhcihuatl (‘Woman of Precious Stone’). A Tonantzin was honored during the movable feast of Xochilhuitl.

Mexico City‘s 17th-century Basilica of Guadalupe –built in honor of the Virgin and perhaps Mexico’s most important religious building—was constructed at the base of the hill of Tepeyac, believed to be a site used for pre-Columbian worship of Tonantzin. Coatlaxopeuh meaning ‘the one who crushes the serpent’ and that it may be referring to the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl.” [1]

There is an interesting story told of this encounter between Juan Diego and Tonantzin.  “The story is told in the Nican Mopohua, a poem written in Nahuatl (the Aztec language)…most probably written in 1556 by the Nahuatl native speaker Antonio Valeriano.

“Tonantzin Guadalupe” by Estrella Apolonia

In the poem the Lady not only appears as an ordinary dark-skinned indigenous woman and speaks to Juan Diego in his Nahuatl mother tongue but She treats him with affection and respect, as an equal. (She speaks to him standing up; if She had been a noble, She would have received him sitting down.) She addresses him in familiar language, using many diminutives, like a mother. The indigenous Nahuatl people had seen their world destroyed, their great capital city in ruins, their culture and religion smashed. An estimated population of 25 million when the Spaniards arrived declined by the end of the century to 1 million from conquest, disease and suicide. The psychological trauma must have been devastating. But the Lady tells Juan Diego She is the Mother both of the Christian god (Dios) and the supreme Nahuatl god and She repeats some of that god’s highest titles (Life-Giver, Creator of Humanity, Lord of the Near and Together, Lord of Heaven and Earth). When Juan Diego says he is of too humble status to speak to the bishop, She insists he is Her chosen messenger and he ends up carrying the good news to the bishop (‘evangelising’ him). The Lady represents the female aspect of the divinity (the Nahuatl supreme divinity Ometeotl being both male and female – the Divine Pair), the nurturing Earth Mother. She tells Juan Diego: ‘I am your kind mother and the mother of all the nations that live on this Earth who would love me.’ She accords the poor equal, or even greater, dignity than the rich and equally assumes both Christian and Nahuatl names of the great ‘Life-Giver’.” [2]

Post- and Pre-Hispanic Mothers-in-Lore

 

 

Sources:

Livingstone, Dinah. Sofn.org.uk, “Tonantzin Guadalupe – ‘Our Mother’“.

Wikipedia, “Tonantzin“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Barnett, Ronald A. Mexconnect.com, “Our Lady of Guadalupe: Tonantzin or the Virgin Mary?

Maestas, Julia. Beinglatino.us, “Guadalupe or Tonantzin: Culture, Identity and Feminine Empowerment“.

Mexicolore.co.uk, “The Virgin of Guadalupe and Tonantzin“.

Wikipedia, “Huei tlamahuiçoltica“.

Goddess Hestia

“Golden Dakini” by A. Andrew Gonzalez

“Hestia’s themes are religious devotion, home, wishes, manifestation, kinship, unity and beginnings. Her symbols are fire (oven) and sparks. The Greek Goddess of household affairs, Hestia watches over our cookery today to help manifest family unity and ensure tasty outcomes. As the hearth Goddess, She provides the spiritual energy necessary to keep our faith sure and the inner fires burning bright. Greek art did not try to portray this Goddess, because She was considered the beginning – the source from which all else was ignited and set in motion.

Getting its name from the annual Yule-pudding making that takes place in many homes around this time of year, Stir-up Sunday is also a time in the Christian Church to motivate determined faith.  So, why not blend the best of both worlds?  Invoke Hestia’s blessing in your kitchen and make some pudding for the whole family (or a gathering of friends). Have each person present stir the pudding clockwise for a few minutes as they focus on a wish. By next year at this time, the wish should manifest.

Light a candle this morning to welcome Hestia’s unity and energy into your home. Or, carry matches in your pocket so the spark of this Goddess can ignite in any situation where it’s needed.  Throughout the day, when you need more commitment to your beliefs, just light one match to invoke Hestia’s aid.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

Patricia Monaghan explained: “There were never statues of this most ancient Greek Goddess, for She took no human form. Hestia was seen only in the fire of the hearth, living in the center of every home, an honored guest and helpful to Her hosts. As the hearth Goddess, Hestia symbolized family unity; by extension, as Goddess of the public hearth, She embodied the social contract. At this ever-burning public hearth, the prytaneion, She bore the name of Prytantis; there first fruits, water, oil, wine and year-old cows were sacrified to Her.

“Hestia in Light” by ~El-Sharra

According to Greek legend, Hestia was the firstborn of the Olympian Goddesses. Her antiquity is attested by the Greek proverb ‘Start with Hestia,’ meaning ‘Begin things at the beginning.’ In the beginning of Her worship, matrilineal succession seems to have been the rule, and traces of it survived in the custom of classical Greece whereby a new home was not considered established until a woman brought fire from Her mother’s hearth to light Her own. In the same way, Greek colonists brought fire from the mother city’s public hearth to assure the cohesion of their new communities” (p. 152).

With the winter months upon us, Hestia’s presence in your home can bring you many blessings.  She reminds you that if you’ve neglected your home, it’s time to shift more energy to your home life. Are you working too hard at making a living that you can’t enjoy your hearth?

Your home is where you can recharge your energy, a place for you relax and be yourself. Take some time today to tidy up your place and burn some sage to cleanse the emotional space. If you have a fire-place light a fire, or a candle will do, and welcome Hestia into your home. [1]

ASSOCIATIONS:

General: Hearth, home, living flame, architecture, bowl, veils, pantry, and keys.

Animals: Donkey (ass) and pigs.

Plants: Angel’s trumpet (Datura), California poppy, goldenrod, hollyhock, purple coneflower, yarrow.

Perfumes/Scents: Angelica, iris, lavender, and peony.

Gems and Metals: Amethyst, garnet, gold, silver and brass.

Colors: Gold, dark rose, lavender, silver, and black.        [2]

Her Roman equivalent is Vesta.

 

 

 

Sources:

Dailygoddesstarot.blogspot.com, “Goddess Tarot: Hestia“.

Goddessgift.com, Goddess Symbols of Hestia“.

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Hestia”.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Auralia. Orderwhitemoon.org, “Hestia“.

Dailygoddesstarot.blogspot.com, “Goddess Tarot: Hestia“.

Goddess-guide.com, “Hestia“.

Goddess-power.com, “Goddess Archetype Hestia“. (This one has a fun quiz attached to it so determine what your Goddess archetype is)

Goddessgift.com, “Hestia, Greek Goddess of Hearth and Home“.

Inanna.virtualave.net, “Hestia“.

Revel, Anita. igoddess.com, “Hestia: Easy to be“.

Theoi.com, “Hestia“.

Wikipedia, “Hestia“.

Goddess Vasudhara

“Vasudhara” by Sundar Sinkhwal

“Vasudhara’s themes are religious devotion, charity, thankfulness and abundance. Her symbols are cows and golden items. In India, this golden-breasted earth Goddess provides us with enough abundance to be able to give back freely of what we receive. Vasushara’s golden color alludes to some solar attributes, including manifesting financial prosperity for those who call upon Her. In Her wealth-giving aspect, Vasudhara sometimes appears as a cow.

Around this date, many churches in the United States and Canada begin their annual fund-raising campaign by asking parishioners to give back a little of what the divine has given them.  While many New Age practitioners don’t belong to a church, this idea still holds merit and would please Vasudhara greatly. Donate a little money to a pagan defense fund, for example.  Put on something gold to draw the Goddess’s prosperity back to you, then buy some good magic books for your library. The proceeds indirectly ‘give back’ to the teachers whom you admire through royalties!

If your schedule allows, stop in at your favorite New Age store and volunteer an hour of your time to give back to the community. Write thank-you letters to people who have somehow touched your life deeply. Should any of these people live nearby, help them with chores or bring them a special dish for dinner.  These acts of kindness are a type of stewardship that reflects Vasushara’s spirit by blessing others.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

A Newari Representation of Vasudhara

From Wikipedia: “Vasudhārā whose name means ‘stream of gems’ in Sanskrit, is the Buddhist bodhisattva of wealth, prosperity, and abundance. She is popular in many Buddhist countries and is a subject in Buddhist legends and art. Originally an Indian bodhisattva, Her popularity has spread to southern Buddhist countries. Her popularity, however, peaks in Nepal where She has a strong following among the Buddhist Newars of the Kathmandu Valley and is thus a central figure in Newar Buddhism.  She is named Shiskar Apa in Lahul and Spiti.

The origin of Vasudhārā in Buddhism appears in the Buddhist text The Vasudhara Dharani.  According to a legend in the text known as ‘The Inquiry of the Layman Sucandra,’ an impoverished layman named Sucandra approaches the Buddha Shakyamuni requesting a way to obtain large amounts gold, grain, silver, and gems in order to feed his large family and engage in acts of charity with the surplus fortune. Shakyamuni, aware of a mantra about the bodhisattva Vasudhara that would suit his purposes, bestows Sucandra with an incantation and religious ritual that when followed would result in good fortune and prosperity brought on by Vasudhara Herself. Upon commencing the rituals and teaching them to others, Sucandra begins to prosper. Noticing his success, the monk Ananda asked Shakyamuni how he had obtained this fortune so quickly. Shakyamuni instructs Ananda to also practice the Vasudhara Dharani and ‘impart it to others ‘for the good of many’.’

Although ‘The Inquiry of the Layman Sucandra’ seems to contradict the Buddha’s renunciation of material possessions and earthly pleasures, Shakyamuni does not instruct the monk to recite the mantra for material benefit but instead he stresses that the mantra is for ‘the good of many’ and for ‘the happiness of many’.  Thus the mantra is meant more as means of alleviating suffering rather than obtaining wealth through Vasudhara, who not only grants physical wealth and abundance but also spiritual wealth and abundance. Click here to continue reading about Her legends from Taranatha.

Like the legend of the ‘Inquiry of the Layman Sucandra’ these legends are significant because they encourage both the lay and monastic worship of Vasudhara.  In addition, they stress the importance of charity, teaching worshippers to share in their good fortune rather than amassing it for themselves.

Vasudhara [Tib. Norgyun(ma)]

In Buddhist art, Vasudhara has a consistent iconography. She can easily be identified as a bodhisattva by the elaborate headdress and the extensive amount of jewelry she wears.  Her skin has a golden hue in bronze and painted images. This color is associated with precious metals and symbolizes opulence, fertility, and generosity in Buddhist iconography. Vasudhara is typically seated on a lotus flower base in the lalitasana, or royal pose, with one foot tucked in towards her and the other hanging of the flower base but resting on a small treasure.  She can, however, also be represented in a standing position.  When standing, Vasudhara has a full vase representing abundance underneath each foot.

Despite this consistency in Her representations, the number of Her arms may differ from image to image. In visual representations, Vasudhara can have as few as two arms and as many as six. The two-armed representations are more common in Tibetan art and Indian art, while six-armed representations are almost exclusive to Nepalese art.  Although the six-armed image originates in India, they are rare and only few examples have been found.

In Her hands, Vasudhara holds a variety of objects attributed to Her. Most representations show Her holding a sheaf of corn in Her left hand, symbolizing an abundant harvest.  She may also be holding a gem or small treasure, a symbol of wealth. Representations with more arms, such as the six-armed Nepali representation, also depict Her holding a full vase and the Book of Wisdom. With Her free hands, Vasudhara performs mudras. A commonly seen mudra in paintings and figurines featuring Vasudhara is the varada mudra, also known as the charity mudra, which symbolizes the ‘pouring forth of divine blessings.’ Vasudhara is the subject of numerous bronzes and paintings. She is predominantly the central figure of bronze sculptures or painted mandalas. She may also, however, appear alongside Her consort, Vaiśravaṇa (Jambhala) the Buddhist God of Riches. Despite his status, She surpasses him in popularity and is more commonly the central figure of Her own mandalas.

Vasudhara is particularly popular in Nepali Buddhism among the Buddhist Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. In this region she is a common household deity. This is known from the countless number of bronzes and paintings found representing Her. These images are small in size, typically 18 cm or smaller.  Because of their small size it is known that these images were primarily for private use, namely household veneration of the Goddess. Additionally, there is a cult dedicated to Her worship followed by the Buddhist Newars.  Followers of this cult believe that Her worship brings wealth and stability. Despite the strong following of this cult by the Buddhist Newars, unfortunately, it is now in decline.

As the Bodhisattva of abundance and prosperity, Her popularity in this region is due to the predominance of agriculture and trade essential to the economy of the Kathmandu Valley.  The Newars believe that Her veneration will generally result in good fortune.

One of the earliest Nepalese representations of Vasudhara is a pauhba (textile art depicting Hindu and Buddhist images on course cotton), dating back to 1015 C.E.  This pauhba is known as the Mandala of Vasudhara. The Goddess is the central image of this mandala, which depicts scenes of dedication, ritual initiation, festive music, and dance associated with Her worship. Its purpose is didactic (to teach). The mandala teaches the importance of worshipping Vasudhara primarily through the narrative of a non-believer whom She converted to belief.

In addition to Her popularity in Nepal, Vasudhara is also an important ‘wealth deity’ in Tibetan Buddhism.  Although popular in Tibet, Vasudhara does not assume as important of a role as She does in Nepalese Buddhism. In Tibet, the worship of Vasudhara is limited to mostly lay people as opposed to worship by both lay and monastic life. This is because Tibetan monastic life regards Vasudhara as a ‘benefactor of the laity’ and instead primarily engages in the worship of the Goddess Tara for all their needs.  This, however, does not mean that monastic life disregards Her completely. They do perform rites and rituals to the Goddess habitually but it is usually at the request of a patron.

The iconography of Vasudhara varies slightly in this region. In Tibetan art She appears more commonly with two arms. The six-armed representations, however, also exist and it is believed they filtered into Tibet through Nepal because of the late appearance of these images in manuscripts and art.  Unlike Nepalese art, Vasudhara rarely appears alone in Tibetan art. Instead She is paired with Jambhala or appears alongside other deities.  Despite these slight differences, most of Her iconography remains unchanged and Vasudhara can be easily recognized by Her attributes in most Buddhist art.

Vasudhara is often compared to the Hindu goddess Lakshmi. As Goddesses of wealth, both deities have a similar iconography and are worshipped for their role in an abundant harvest.  Both assume a golden hue in artistic representations, perform the same mudra, and hold similar objects. For example, Vasudhara and Lakshmi are often depicted holding gems or having pots of treasure under their feet. It is believed that the convention of depicting Vasudhara standing on vases originated from earlier representations of Lakshmi.  Furthermore, both Goddesses are often depicted paired with their respective consorts, Lakshmi alongside Vishnu and Vasudhara alongside Jambhala.” [1]

“Invite Vasudhara into your home, offer Her flowers and water, and recite Her mantra daily to invite wealth and abundance into your life. Her mantra is: OM SHRI VASUDHARA RATNA NIDHANA KASHETRI SOHA.” [2]

Sources:

Fsmegamall.com, “Bejeweled Vasudhara – Goddess of Wealth and Abundance“.

Wikipedia, “Vasudhara“.

 

Suggested Links:

Huntington, John C. & Dina Bangdel. The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art, “125| Vasundhara“.

Isley, A. Krishna. Krishna76.deviantart.com, “Vasundhara in Vajrayana Buddhi“. (An excellent academic essay!)

News.richmond.edu, “Religion professor researches Buddhist goddesses of Tibet“.

Shaw, Miranda Eberle. Buddhist Goddesses of India.

Smithsonian Institution. Asia.si.edu, “Devi: The Great Goddess“.

Goddess Aramaiti

“Aramaiti’s themes are cleansing, religious devotion, offering, beauty, banishing, meditation and prayer. Her symbols are fire and all acts of veneration. Translated, Aramaiti’s name means ‘piety’. So it is that this Iranian Goddess embodies the attributes of religious devotion and selflessness through which a person reaches higher states of awareness and returns to oneness with the Sacred Parent. According to tradition, Aramaiti protects people during worship.

Kartika is the Hindu name for the period between October and November, and it is considered a sacred month in which acts of piety will be rewarded.  Bathing in streams, wells, or any running water source early this morning brings Aramaiti’s purification and inner beauty. Afterward, it’s customary to pray and meditate for the Goddess’s blessings and assistance in being faithful to one’s religious studies and goals.

If you hold any rituals today, or cast spells, consider asking Aramaiti to safeguard your working area from unwanted influences and to guide the magic for the greatest good.  Finally, keeping lamps burning today drives away evil influences that may hinder or trip up your path. Perhaps leave one lit near your altar, religious tools, or any Goddess image. This action honours Aramaiti and invokes Her ongoing protection in your sacred space of home.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

Aramaiti (pronounced AH rah MAH tih) was “the Iranian Earth Mother who wandered the world converting deserts into gardens [and] called the Mother of the People Made of Clay, the Mother of humanity” (Blair, p. 28).

“Spenta Armaiti; one of the three female aspects of Ashura Maza of Zoroastrianism. She’s also said to be Ashura Maza’s daughter who sits at his left hand. Armaiti means ‘devotion’ and Spenta Armaiti means ‘holy devotion’. She is the righteous virgin who is the personification of faithful obedience, religious harmony and worship; who also ruled reproduction, fruitification and destiny.  She is the guardian of the earth and keeper of the vineyards, who insures a pasture for cattle.  Robbers, evil men and disrespectful wives displease Her.  In some myths they say She created the first humans, suggesting a derivation from an earlier creator Goddess and in ancient Armenia She’s known as Santaramet a Goddess of the Underworld. She has gone by many names such as Armaita, Insfenamad, and Sipendarmidh among other names.” [1]

“Spenta Armaiti means ‘Holy Serenity, Devotion’ also means Tranquility, Holy Compliance.  It is peace and prosperity. She is an earth and fertility Goddess and daughter of Ahura Mazda. She was the fourth Amesha Spenta created. She personifies holy devotion and righteous obedience, and also perfect mindedness gained through humility, faith, devotion, piety, and so on.” [2]

 

 

 

Sources:

Blair, Nancy. Goddess in a Box, “Aramaiti“.

Persiandna.com, “Angels in Zoroastrianism“.

Sf.fdatabase.tripod.com, “Lesser Known Deities – Spenta-Armaiti“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Accessnewage.com, “Spenta Armaiti, Spirit of Serenity“.

Britannica.com, “Amesha Spenta“.

Geniusmothers.com, “Spenta Armaiti“.

Iranicaonline.org, “Armaiti“.

Magee, M.D. Askwhy.co.uk, “Zoroaster, Persia’s Influence on Judaism and Christianity“.

Wikipedia, “Amesha Spenta“.

Goddess Perimbo

“Perimbo themes are forgiveness, religious devotion, banishing, justice and karma. Her symbols are light and lunar emblems.  This Brazilian Goddess is the creatrix of all things. From Her home in the moon, Perimbo gently guides human life in benevolent ways. Balancing this kindness, She is also a Goddess of justice, meting out karmic punishment to teach important lessons when necessary.

During mid-October, the city of Belem in Brazil celebrates Círio de Nazaré and holds a parade in which people go barefoot, carrying weights and lights to banish evil, sin, and negativity from their lives.  To adapt this in a simple way and draw Perimbo’s benevolence into your living space, take a flashlight, candle, or long-stemmed match clockwise around your house, saying:

‘Perimbo, shine the light of fairness and devotion
throughout my home.’

Try to make sure the light reaches as many nooks and crannies as possible, symbolically banishing the shadows that hide there.

For a portable Perimbo charm to inspire equity in all your dealings, find a glow-in-the-dark image of the moon. Charge it up for several hours using sunlight or the flashlight from the previous spell, saying instead:

‘Perimbo, shine the light of fairness and devotion
throughout my life.’

Carry this in your pocket to radiate the Goddess’s power no matter where you may be.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

I only found a few references to today’s Goddess.  On Lowchensaustralia.com, it states: “Perimbo (Bakairi) Moon Goddess and supreme being who created the earth and all life on it. Wife of the moon god Poré.” [1]

Patricia Monaghan mentions Her in her book Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines (a larger edition than the New Book of Goddesses and Heroines that I have in which Perimbo is not mentioned).  You can click here to read the preview, but the first page of the entry Her name is mentioned in is not included in the preview.

 

 

Sources:

Marks, Dominic. Lowchensaustralia.com,Goddess Names from Brazil: Perimbo“.

 

Suggested Links:

Encyclopedia of Religion Volume 13, “Yanoama and Mundurucú supreme beings” (p. 8577).

Goddess Tripura

“Tripura’s themes are religious devotion, forgiveness, relationships, kindness, truth, spirituality, patience and restoration. Her symbols are gold, silver and iron.  In Jainism, Tripura is the great mother who lives in three metallic cities (gold, silver, iron) that represent the heavens, the air, and the earth (or body, mind, and spirit). She unites these three powers within us for well-balanced spiritual living that reflects good morals and proper action.

Taking place between August and September, this Paryushana focuses on the ten cardinal virtues of forgiveness, charity, simplicity, contentment, truthfulness, self-restraint, fasting, detachment, humility, and continence. It is also a time to restore relationships that have been damaged during the year and generally reassess one’s life and perspectives, asking for Tripura’s assistance during your daily meditations with words like this:

‘Great Heavenly Mother, create in me a temple
that is strong and pure, a mind that seeks after
truth, and a spirit that thirsts for enlightenment.
Balance these parts of myself so I may walk along
your path with harmony as my companion.’

Another way to generate Tripura’s attributes within today is by wearing gold, silver, and iron toned objects or clothing. If you can’t find anything in an iron color, just iron your clothing using the magic of puns for power!”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Tripurasundarĩ (‘Beautiful (Goddess) of the Three Cities’) or Mahã-Tripurasundarĩ (‘Great Beautiful (Goddess) of the Three Cities’), also called Ṣoḍaśĩ (“Sixteen”), Lalitã (‘She Who Plays’) and Rãjarãjeśvarĩ (‘Queen of Queens, Supreme Ruler’), is one of the group of ten Goddesses of Hindu belief, collectively called Mahavidyas.

As Shodashi, Tripurasundari is represented as a sixteen-year-old girl, and is believed to embody sixteen types of desire. Shodashi also refers to the sixteen syllable mantra, which consists of the fifteen syllable (panchadasakshari) mantra plus a final seed syllable. The Shodashi Tantra refers to Shodashi as the ‘Beauty of the Three Cities,’ or Tripurasundari.

Tripurasundari is the primary Goddess associated with the Shakta Tantric tradition known as Sri Vidya.  The Goddess Who is ‘Beautiful in the Three Worlds’ (Supreme Deity of Srikula systems); the ‘Moksha Mukuta’.” [1]

One source I found stated that “Maha Tripura Sundari is the Universal manifestation of the Mother Goddess Parvati.” [2]  Another explained that “Goddess Tripura is the ultimate, primordial Shakti, the light of manifestation. She is the garland of letters of the alphabet and said to be the one who gave birth to the three worlds. She is called ‘the beauty of three worlds’.  At dissolution, She is the abode of all Her devotees.

The Sri Chakra, frequently called the Sri Yantra.

Vidya means knowledge, specifically female knowledge, or the Goddess, and in this context relates to her aspect called Shri, Bala or Tripura Sundari whose magical diagram is called the “Shri Yantra” or the “Bala Tripura Sundari Yantra”. [2]

“Goddess Tripura Sundari is an integral part of the religious life of Tripura. The Tripura Sundari, along with other Goddesses, namely, Tara, Kali, Bhuvaneshvari, Chhinnamasta, Bhairavi, Bagalamukhi, Dhumavati, Kamalatmika and Matangi.

Kali, Tara, Shodashi, Bhuvaneshvari, Bhairavi,
Chhinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagalamukhi, Matangi, and Kamala.

This Goddess is described as being the mate of Lord Shiva. It is commonly believed that the state of Tripura has derived its name from Tripura Sundari. One of the major temples of the satte is dedicated to the worship of Tripura Sundari.  The name of this temple is Tripura Sundari Temple. This popular temple of Tripura is situated at the top of a hill close to the village called Radhakishorepur. This place is not very far away from the prominent town of Udaipur. There is a hymn dedicated to Tripura Sundari.

The importance of Goddess Tripura Sundari in Tripura can be understood from the fact that it is considered one of the 51 pithasthanas associated with the religion of Hinduism.

Goddess Tripura Sundari is often referred to as Shodasi. Shodasi is commonly represented in the state as a girl of sixteen years. She represents sixteen different types of urges. The Shodasi Tantra is an important source of information about Tripura Sundari in Tripura. According to this source, Tripura Sundari is actually the illumination in the eyes of Lord Shiva.” [3]

Pertaining to Lalitha: “Lalitha means ‘She Who Plays’. All creation, manifestation and disslution is considered to be a play of Devi or the Goddess. Lalitha Tripura Sundari Devi is a Goddess who is representative of these Goddess on form, Durga, Lakshmi and Saraswathi. Tripura means the Three Cities, and Sundari means beautiful; specifically a beautiful female. Therefore Her name means, Beautiful of Three Cities. Tripura Sundari is also worshipped as the Yantra, which is considered by practitioner of Sri Vidya. Vidya means wisdom. Tripura Sundari combines in Her being Kali’s determination and Durga’s charm, grace and complexion. She has a third eye on Her forehead, usually four armed and clad in red or golden in colour, depending on the meditational form. She holds five arrows of flowers, a noose, a goad and sugarcane or bow. The noose represents attachment, the goad represents repulsion, the sugarcane represents the mind and the arrows are the five sense objects. She is the heavily ornamented and sits on a ‘Simhasanam’ before Srichakra. Srichakram is the most sacred thing for Hindus.

“Shakti” by Dhira Lawrence

Goddess Lalitha Tripura Sundari Devi and Red Goddess are one of the most powerful manifestation of Goddess, Shakti. Goddess Shakti incarnated as Lalitha demolish the demon called Bhandasura. As per legends Goddess Lalitha represents the panchabhuta of the universe. Panchabhutas are air, water, fire, space and earth. She always appears as She is 16 years of age. According to this theory Goddess Lalitha appears in the form of 16 nithyadevies, while depicting the war between Bhandasura and the Goddess Lalitha. Sahasranama Stotra mentions the Nitydevies, Her consort is Shiva Kama Sundara. The Lalitha Sahasranamam illustrates Her cherisma from head to foot. She described as the ‘One who recreates the Universe’.” [4]

 

 

 

Sources:

Astroved.com, “Bala Tripura Sundari Yantra“.

Prophet666.com, “Maha Tripura Sundari Mantra“.

Sivaniskitchen.blogspot.com, “Sri Lalitha Tripura Sundari Devi“.

Wikipedia, “Tripura Sundari“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Agaliha. Mysticwicks.com, “Thread: Lalita/Tripura Sundari/Shodashi {Goddess of the Week}“.

Indianetzone.com, “Goddess Lalita, Hindu Goddess“.

Shivashakti.com, “Lalita Tripurasundari, the Red Goddess“.

Stolan, Mihai. Liveonlineyoga.com, “Yoga of the Ten Great Cosmic Powers“.

Wikipedia, “Mahavidya“.

Goddess Al-Lat

“Virgo” by Josephine Wall

“Al-Lat’s themes are religious devotion, meditation, purity, home, justice and children. Her symbols are the moon, silver, and white stones.  A Persian and Arabian moon Goddess, Al-Lat is the feminine form of Allah. Post-Islamic writings banished Her name from holy books, but Her presence remained behind as a domestic guardian, the giver of children and protectess of all good and just deeds.

Around this time of year, Muslims observe Ramadan and begin a time of abstinence to purify themselves and honor their sacred book, the Qu’ran. During this fast, people are instructed to look within and rededicate their hearts to the tenets of their faith. To do this and also honor Al-Lat, fast for this day if physically feasible. Or, just abstain from one well-loved food or beverage for the day and study your own sacred text(s). Pray to Al-Lat for insight into the deeper meanings of the words. Write down any osbervations in a journal so Al-Lat’s presence will inspire good deeds and positive action for many years to come.

To attract Al-Lat’s protective energies into your home, grasp four white items (coral and moonstone are excellent choices), saying,

‘Within these _________of white,
Al-Lat, place your protective light.
Where’er these _________s are placed around,
your safety and presence shall abound.’

Put these as close as possible to the four directional points of the area that needs guardian power.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Evening Wind” by Aaron Paquette

Patricia Monaghan explains that “in Arabic, Allah means ‘god.’ Similarly, Al-Lat means simply ‘Goddess,’ the supreme reality in female form.  Al-Lat is a mythic figure of great antiquity, one of the trinity of desert Goddesses named in the Koran, Al-Uzza and Menat being the others.  Like the Greek Demeter, Al-Lat represented the earth and its fruits; it follows that She also ruled human generation.

Al-Lat was worshiped at Ta’if near Mecca in the form of a great uncut block of white granite, which Her worshipers addressed as ‘My Lady’ or Rusa (‘good fortune’).  Women were required to appear before Her naked and circle the sacred rock; if these conditions were met, the Goddess would grant all requests.  Solid as the earth She represented, Al-Lat was considered unshakable and immovable.  Thus Her people swore their most solemn oaths by Her, with the following words: ‘By the salt, by the fire, and by Al-Lat who is the greatest of all” (p. 41).

“Al’Uzza, Allat and Menat, the Triple Goddesses of Arabia” by Thalia Took

Thalia Took tells us that “Al-Lat, whose name is a contraction of al-Illahat, ‘the Goddess’, is mentioned by Herodotus as Alilat, whom he identifies with Aphrodite. She is sometimes also equated with Athene, and is called ‘the Mother of the Gods’, or ‘Greatest of All’. She is a Goddess of Springtime and Fertility, the Earth-Goddess who brings prosperity. She and Al-Uzza were sometimes confused, and it seems that as one gained in popularity in one area the other’s popularity diminished. The sun in Arabia was called Shams and considered feminine, and may represent an aspect of Al-Lat. She had a sanctuary in the town of Ta’if, east of Mecca, and was known from Arabia to Iran. Her symbol is the crescent moon (sometimes shown with the sun disk resting in its crescent), and the gold necklace She wears is from a pendant identified to Her. As a Fertility-Goddess She bears a sheaf of wheat; and in Her hand She holds a small lump of frankincense, as Her emblem is found carved on many incense-holders.” [1]

According to Wikipedia, “in older sources, Allat is an alternative name of the Mesopotamian Goddess of the underworld, now usually known as Ereshkigal. She was reportedly also venerated in Carthage under the name Allatu.

The Goddess occurs in early Safaitic graffiti (Safaitic han-‘Ilāt ‘the Goddess’) and the Nabataeans of Petra and the people of Hatra also worshipped Her, equating Her with the Greek Athena and Tyche and the Roman Minerva. She is frequently called ‘the Great Goddess’ in Greek in multi-lingual inscriptions.  According to Wellhausen, the Nabataeans believed al-Lāt was the mother of Hubal (and hence the mother-in-law of Manāt).

Allat-Minerva from As-Suwayda, Syria (National Museum of Damascus)

 

The Greek historian Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BCE, considered Her the equivalent of Aphrodite:

‘The Assyrians call Aphrodite Mylitta, the Arabians Alilat, and the Persians Mitra. In addition that deity is associated with the Indian deity Mitra (Vedic). The Persian and Indian deity were developed from the proto-indo-iranian deity known as mitra.’

According to Herodotus, the ancient Arabians believed in only two gods:

‘They believe in no other gods except Dionysus and the Heavenly Aphrodite; and they say that they wear their hair as Dionysus does his, cutting it round the head and shaving the temples. They call Dionysus, Orotalt; and Aphrodite, Alilat.’

 

 

 

 

 

In the Qur’an, She is mentioned along with al-‘Uzzá and Manāt in Sura 53: 19–23. The tribe of ʿād of Iram of the Pillars is also mentioned in Sura 895–8, and archaeological evidence from Iram shows copious inscriptions devoted to Her for the protection of a tribe by that name.

Al-lāt is also explicitly attested from early Islamic records discussing the pre-Islamic period. According to the Book of Idols (Kitāb al-ʾAṣnām) by Hishām ibn al-Kalbi, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed Al-lāt resided in the Kaʿbah and also had an idol inside the sanctuary:{{quote|Her custody was in the hands of the Banū Attāb ibn Mālik of the Thaqīf, who had built an edifice over Her. The Quraysh, as well as all the Arabs, venerated al-Lāt. They also used to name their children after her, calling them Zayd al-Lāt and Taym al-Lāt. […] Al-Lāt continued to be venerated until the Thaqīf embraced Islam, when the Apostle of God dispatched al-Mughīrah ibn-Shu‘bah, who destroyed her and burnt Her temple to the ground.

The shrine and temple dedicated to al-Lat in Taif, was demolished by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, on the orders of Muhammad, during the Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, this occurred in the same year as the Battle of Tabuk (which occurred in October 630 AD). Muhammad sent Abu Sufyan with a group armed men to destroy the Idol al-Lat (also referred to as al-Tagiyyah) that was worshipped by the citizens of Taif.  The destruction of the idol was a demand by Muhammad before any reconciliation could take place with the citizens of Taif who were under constant attack and suffering from a blockade by the Banu Hawazin, led by Malik, a convert to Islam who promised to continue the war against the citizens of the city which was started by Muhammad in the Siege of Taif.” [2]

Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator (Courtesy of the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon)

Now, what’s interesting is that Muhammad himself commanded his followers to offer prayers to these “Allah’s daughters” (Al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Menat).  He later retracted it and blamed it on the Devil after supposedly receiving a revelation from God that the verses should be removed and was “comforted by God” after doing so.  It is important to note that such “after the fact corrective revelations” are very common with cults, using the old time excuse, “The devil made me do it”. [3]

To me, this is nothing more than another example of the patriarchy showing it’s true colors: demanding the rejection and destruction of the Great Mother and forcing Her underground in an attempt to elevate their mighty sky god in order to dominate and control the populace; using tactics such as war – causing suffering and death – to convert and force their religion on the people in order to achieve their own selfish and manipulative means.

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

Brother Andrew. http://www.bible.ca, “Islamic roots of polytheism: Allah’s Daughters: Lat, Uzza, and Manat “.

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Al-Lat”.

Took, Thalia. A-Muse-ing Grace Gallery, “The Arab Triple Goddess“.

Wikipedia, “Al-lāt“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Arabianwomen.nielsonpi.com, “Women in the Ancient Arabia and the Middle East“.

Benel. Al-muqaddasarabianblog.blogspot.com, “Deity: Allat”.

Britannica Online Encyclopedia, “al-Lāt“.

Isidorus. The Pomegranate Seeds Discussions, Q’re, the Maiden“.

Nabataea.net, “Nabataean Pantheon“.

 

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