Tag Archive: fruit


Goddess Gaia

“Magic Mountain” by Hans-Peter Kolb

“Gaia’s themes are abundance, providence, thankfulness, nature, divination, promises and the earth. Her symbols are harvested foods (especially fruit and grains) and soil. In Greek tradition, Gaia stretched out at the beginning of time, becoming the earth’s land. In this form, She continues to give life and sustenance to all things that dwell in and on the planet, even when the cold weather tries to steal away that life. So sacred are Gaia’s soils that any promise made with one hand on the earth is irrevocable. The oracle at Delphi belonged to Gaia before Apollo took over, giving Her the additional attribute of prophesy.

The Thanksgiving theme among Canadians is much the same as in the United States; it’s a time of expressing gratitude to the earth and the heavens for their ongoing providence.  Enjoy a robust feast of harvested edibles today to internalize Gaia’s blessings and foresight. Remember to give thanks to the creatrix of your feast before eating!  Also consider following Greek custom by leaving Gaia an offering of barley, honey, or cakes in an opening in the earth. This show of gratitude inspires Gaia’s fertility in the coming months and years.

To help keep yourself true to a promise, carry a few pinches of soil with you in a sealed container today. If you sense your resolve waning, release a little back to Gaia. This invokes Her strength and sense of duty.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Breath of Gaia” by Josephine Wall

“In the beginning, the Greeks said, there was only formless chaos: light and dark, sea and land, blended in a shapeless pudding.  Then chaos settled into form, and that form was the huge Gaia, the deep-breasted one, the earth.  She existed before time began, for Time was one of Her children.  In the timeless spans before creation, She existed, to Herself and of Herself alone.

“Giants of Gaia” by Diana Elizabeth Stanley

But finally Gaia desired love, and for this purpose She made Herself a son: Uranus, the heaven, who arched over his Mother and satisfied Her desire.  Their mating released Gaia’s creative force, both marvelous and monstrous.  Uranus hated and envied Gaia’s other children, so the primeval Mother kept them hidden from his destructiveness.

Eventually, however, Her dark and crowded womb grew too heavy to endure.  So Gaia created a new element: gray adamant.  And from it She fashioned a new tool, never known before: a jagged-toothed sickle. With this Gaia armed Her son Cronos (Time), who took the weapon from his Mother’s hand and hid himself.

“The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn” by Giorgio Vasari & Cristofano Gherardi

Soon, Uranus came, drawing a dark sky-blanket over himself as he approached to mount his Mother-Lover. Then his brother-son Cronos sprang into action, grasping Uranus’ genitals and sawing them off with the rough blade. Blood fell in a heavenly rain on Mother Gaia.  So fertile was that even the blood of the mutilated sky impregnated Her.  The Erinyes sprang up; so did the Giants; and so did the ash-tree nymphs, the Meliae, humanity’s ancestors (and, in some stories, by throwing Uranus’ testicles into the sea, they caused the sea to foam and out of that white foam rose Aphrodite, the Goddess of love and beauty).

This was the familiar creation story that the ancient Greeks told their children.  Even after the earth mother had been supplanted as the primary divinity by invading Olympians, the Greeks worshiped Gaia’s power with barley and honey cakes placed at sacred openings in Her surface.  At such fissures, too, gifted people would read the will of the Great Mother, for She was through all ages the “primeval prophet” who inspired the oracles at Delphi, Dodona, and elsewhere.  And it was to Gaia – even in the days when Zeus ruled the pantheon – that the Greeks swore their most sacred oaths, thus recognizing Her ancient theological sovereignty” (Monaghan, p. 131).

“Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Tellus.

Many Neopagans worship Gaia. Beliefs regarding Gaia vary, ranging from the belief that Gaia is the Earth to the belief that She is the spiritual embodiment of the earth, or the Goddess of the Earth.

“Spring I – Gaia” by ~SargonX

Gaia’s name was revived in 1979 by James Lovelock, in Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth; his Gaia Hypothesis was supported by Lynn Margulis. The hypothesis proposes that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a dynamic system that shapes the Earth’s biosphere, and maintains the Earth as a fit environment for life. In some Gaia theory approaches the Earth itself is viewed as an organism with self-regulatory functions. Further books by Lovelock and others popularized the Gaia Hypothesis, which was widely embraced and passed into common usage as part of the heightened awareness of environmental concerns of the 1990s.” [1]

Here’s a quote that I’d love to leave you with by Sir James Lovelock from Ages of Gaia:

“What if Mary is another name for Gaia?
Then her capacity for virgin birth is no miracle,
it is a role of Gaia since life began.
She is of this Universe and, conceivably,
a part of God. On Earth, she is the source
of life everlasting and is alive now;
she gave birth to humankind
and we are part of her.”

 

 

 

Sources:

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Gaia”.

Wikipedia, “Gaia (mythology)“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Auralia. Orderwhitemoon.org, “Gaia“.

Goddessgift.com, “Mother Gaia’s Healing Chicken Soup” – for the kitchen witches out there 😉

Greekmedicine.net, “Greek Mythology: Gaia – Mother Earth, Mother Nature“.

Green-agenda.com, “Home“. (* This site actually seems to state that the modern green movement has some type of nefarious agenda of sorts, but it lists some awesome quotes that I wanted to share.)

Lash, John Lamb. Metahistory.org, “TAKE BACK THE PLANET: A Review of James Cameron’s Avatar (2009)“. (A movie I thoroughly enjoyed!)

Livingstone, Glenys. Matrifocus.com, “Beltane/Samhain @ EarthGaia“.

Mythagora.com, “Gaia

Revel, Anita. igoddess.com, “Gaia: dose up on mama love“.

Sozaeva, Katy. Voices.yahoo.com, “Gaia – Goddess Worship and Understanding Our World from a Feminine Perspective“.

Theoi.com, “Gaia“.

Took, Thalia. Thaliatook.com, “Gaea“.

 

Goddess Tesana

“Dawn” by kristinamy

“Tesana’s themes are the harvest, light, fertility, abundance, hope, beginnings, growth, opportunity and restoration. Her symbols are the dawn, the color red and fruit.  In Etruscan, Tesana means ‘dawn’. As the first rays of light begin to reach through the darkness, Tesana is there, offering the hope of a better tomorrow and the warmth of a new day. Through Her steadfast attendance, the earth and its people bear life and become fruitful.

Mnarja is the primary folk festival in Malta and originated as an orange and lemon harvest celebration. Then name Mnarja means ‘illumination’ and all the ritual fires ignited toady symbolically keep Tesana’s fertility burning. So, light a candle this morning at dawn’s first light to welcome Tesana and invoke Her assistance. Choose the color of the candle to reflect your goal: pink for hope, white for beginnings (a clean slate) and green for growth or restoration. If you like, also carve an emblem of your goal into the wax, leaving the taper to burn until it melts past the symbol (this releases the magic).

In a similar prolific tone, the customary food to encourage Tesana’s fertility and continuing good harvests today is rabbit. If this isn’t a meat you enjoy, make rarebit instead; this was a substitute for costly rabbits in the Middle Ages.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

 

“Eos’ Triumph” by eveningstars242

According to Thalia Took, “Thesan is the Etruscan Goddess of the Dawn, Divination and Childbirth, as well as a Love-Goddess. She is depicted on several Etruscan mirror backs, bearing, like many other Etruscan Goddesses, a great pair of wings from Her back, especially appropriate to a Sky-Goddess. One meaning of Her name is simply ‘Dawn’, and related words are thesi, ‘illumination’, and thesviti, ‘clear or famous’. The other meaning of Her name connects Her with the ability to see the future, for thesan also means ‘divination’, as seen in the related Etruscan word thesanthei, ‘divining’ or ‘brilliant’. This relates to Her function as a Dawn Goddess–for as the dawn illuminates what was previously dark, so divination throws light on the dark future and enables one to see what may happen. She is called by some a childbirth Goddess, as She is present at the beginning of the day, which finds its parallel in the beginning of a new baby’s life. Similarly, the Roman Goddess of Light and Childbirth, Lucina, brings the infant into the light of the world.

The Etruscans identified their Thesan with the Greek Goddess of the Dawn Eos. In the Greek legend, Aphrodite had found Eos in bed with Her lover Ares; to punish Eos She ‘cursed’ Her with an insatiable taste for mortal youths, and Eos became infamous for Her many lovers. The Etruscans seemed to quite like these stories and easily transferred them to their Dawn-Goddess Thesan; the stories depicted on the mirrors are generally straight out of Greek myth.

On one relief mirror back (kind of a rarity in Etruscan mirrors since the decoration on the back is almost always engraved rather than cast), Thesan is shown in the act of abducting Kephalos, a young man of Athens who was married to the King’s daughter, Procris. Thesan is winged here, and wears a chiton and diagonal himation that flow in the breeze; about Her head is a halo, to emphasize Her function as Light-Goddess. She runs off to the left carrying Kephalos in Her arms, who is shown as nude and much smaller than She is. He does not look at all distressed at the situation and He rests in Her arms with his right hand on Her shoulder. Like many depictions of Etruscan women and their lovers, She is shown as larger and therefore more important or powerful than the man: this has been taken as an indication of the high status of Etruscan women.

Eos carries off Cephalus, on an Attic red-figure lekythos, ca. 470–460 BCE

The same scene is depicted on a mirror handle in high relief openwork; Kephalos is again quite a lot smaller (and younger) than Thesan, who is not winged this time, but whose cloak billows behind Her in the breeze. She smiles down at young Kephalos as She lifts him up, and he is nude save for a short cloak and hunting boots.

The so-called “Memnon pietà”: The goddess Eos lifts up the body of her son Memnon (Attic red-figure cup, ca. 490–480 BC, from Capua, Italy)

Another favorite scene of Thesan/Eos depicts a far more somber affair.  When Her son Memnon (by Tithonus, another young man She abducted to be Her lover) was killed in the Trojan War, Eos grieved so terribly that She threatened never to bring forth the dawn again. She was finally persuaded to return, but in Her grief She weeps tears of dew every morning for Her beloved son. One mirror-back shows Her before Tinia (Zeus) with Thethis (Thetis), the mother of Achilles. Both Goddesses plead with Tinia to spare their sons’ lives; but both were already doomed to die. The relief mirror mentioned above has been interpreted by some as showing Thesan carrying off the body of Her dead son Memnon (who the Etruscans called Memrun): the figures are not labelled as is usual in Etruscan mirrors, making the differing interpretations possible.

Another more purely Etruscan depiction of Her shows Her with Usil the Sun God and Nethuns (the Roman Neptune), God of the Sea. It would appear that this mirror is to be symbolically read as the dawn preceding the Sun at daybreak as it rises from the Sea (notwithstanding the fact that Etruria is on the west coast of Italy).

Like more than a few Etruscan Goddesses, She seems to have survived into Tuscan folklore at least until the 19th century as a spirit called Tesana. She was said to visit mortals as they dreamt, in the time when the sun is rising but before the sleeper had yet awakened. She was believed to bring words of encouragement and comfort, and Her presence in a dream gave good fortune and blessings for the day.

“Eos goddess of morningredness1” by Drezdany

She is equated with Eos and Aurora, the Roman Dawn-Goddess.” [1]

Sources:

Took, Thalia. The Obscure Goddess Online Directory, “Thesan“.

Suggested Links:

Covenofthegoddess.com, “Goddess Eos“.

Goddess-Guide.com, “Eos“.

Mythagora.com, “Eos: Erigeneia, The Dawn“.

The Roman-Colosseum, “Myths about the Roman Goddess Aurora“.

Theoi Greek Mythology, “Eos“.

Took, Thalia. The Obscure Goddess Online Directory, “Etruscan“.

Took, Thalia. The Obscure Goddess Online Directory, “Aurora“.

Wikipedia, “Aurora (mythology)“.

Wikipedia, “Eos“.

Goddess Rangda

"Rangda's Illusion" - unknown

“Rangda’s themes are thankfulness, magic and fertility.  Her symbols are a pregnant Goddess, round-shaped fruits, hibiscus and the color yellow.  A witch Goddess in Bali, Rangda takes on a function many witches have throughout history, that of a woman’s helpmate, especially in conception. To men, Rangda offers physical fertility or improved energy for magical workings.

Now that the earth is fertile, Rangda’s power is even more abundant. To commemorate this and generate some literal or figurative fertility in your life, do as the Balinese do. Wear saffron dyed (yellow) clothes, and leave Rangda an offering of fruit or flowers somewhere special. As you do, pray for an unborn child’s well-being, for pregnancy, or for fruitful productivity in whatever area of your life needs it most.

Rangda can fulfil your desire for successful living. To manifest Her profuseness, take a round watermelon and cut it in half. Make melon balls, and add any other round-shaped fruit (especially tropical fruit). Before eating, add this incantation:

‘Rangda, fullfil me
Rangda, complete me
As my hunger is filled
Let my spirit find satisfaction.’

Eating the fruit salad internalizes Her sweet, helpful energy.

Finally, to invoke Rangda’s blessing and aid in conception, decorate your bedroom with yellow highlights before making love. Find a yellow light bulb, put yellow-toned sheets on your bed, and place yellow flowers (or hibiscus) by the bed.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

"Rangda" by unded

Terrifying deities, spirits and other supernatural creatures are a common theme throughout the world’s different cultures and mythologies; in East Asia, the Goddess Rangda is one such example. “Rangda is the ‘Witch Goddess of Bali’ and the ‘Queen of Sorcery’ and a symbol of darkness.  She is the ancient widow who dances over graves.  She is the source of supernatural power and is depicted as a nude old woman with large breasts, long and tangled red hair (representing wildness), sharp teeth, and flames spewing form Her mouth.  She is associated with the sea…which most Balinese fear.*  She possesses righteous people and drives them to sinful behavior.  She is the model of untamed fertility that can be dangerous to overcome.” [1]

"Rangda's Girl" by LowKeyReality

Rangda can be identified with the wrathful form of the Hindu god Shiva as Bhairava, portrayed in his legends. The demon queen is everything that the Balinese abhor and try to stay away from in their everyday lives. Her name has been translated as meaning ‘widow’. She is depicted in art as a repugnant, cannibalistic demon with enormous fangs and shown devouring babies or shown with skulls and garlands of entrails. She is believed to be death itself, haunting graves and the death temples. Her followers are said to be the leyak (humans who have cannibalistic tastes like that of their mistress), who are given their powers by the Goddess Herself to kill people out of malice.” [2]

It has been suggested that the Goddess Rangda derives from an 11th century Balinese queen, Mahendradatta or Gunapriyadharmapatni, a Javanese princess sister of Dharmawangsa of East Javanese Isyana Dynasty of late Medang Kingdom period, who was exiled by the king for practicing witchcraft against his second wife. In retaliation for this, the queen attempted to destroy the king and his kingdom. She was eventually overcome by the powers of a holy man, but not before half the population died from plague. [3] [4]

Another story says that She is “the incarnation of Calon Arang, the legendary witch that wrecked havoc in ancient Java during the reign of Airlangga in late 10th century. It is said that Calon Arang was a widow, powerful in black magic, who often damaged farmer’s crops and caused disease to come. She had a girl, named Ratna Manggali, who, though beautiful, could not get a husband because people were afraid of her mother. Because of the difficulties faced by her daughter, Calon Arang was angry and she intended to take revenge by kidnapping a young girl. She brought the girl to a temple to be sacrificed to the Goddess Durga. The next day, a great flood engulfed the village and many people died. Disease also appeared.

King Airlangga, who had heard of this matter, then asked for his advisor, Empu Bharada, to deal with this problem. Empu Bharada then sent his disciple, Empu Bahula, to be married to Ratna. Both were married with a huge feast that lasted seven days and seven nights, and the situation returned to normal. Calon Arang had a book that contained magic incantations. One day, this book was found by Empu Bahula, who turned it over to Empu Bharada. As soon as Calon Arang knew that the book had been stolen, she became angry and decided to fight Empu Bharada. Without the help of Durga, Calon Arang was defeated. Since she was defeated, the village was safe from the threat of Calon Arang’s black magic.” [5]

Rangda is believed to be the enemy of Baraong Ket, the leader of the forces of good, and battles with him with Her army of evil witches. Although She is constantly defeated by the forces of good, (Baraong Ket), She always turns to battle again.  She is closely associated with the Indian Goddess Durga, and may also be linked to Kali, the dark mother of destruction, transformation and protection in Hinduism. [6] [7]

“While many may see Her as fearsome, if treated well, She is actually to be considered a protective force in some parts of Bali, and in this form, She is sometimes depicted as beautiful.  Her colors are black, white and red.  The Balinese people believe that by including Rangda in ritual dramas, they hold the dangers of chaos in check.” [8]

Click here to watch a scene from such a theatrical Balinese performance depicting the Barong and his assistants trying to attack the Rangda.

Photo from 'Life of a Lil Notti Monkey: Barong and Rangda *by JS*'. Click on the photo to visit the site and view more pictures from the Barong and Rangda Dance.

“Today, She is mainly known by westerners as an evil character in a play where Her legends are staged. As a pemurtian, Rangda stands for the wrathful forms of Durga, Shiva (Bhairava), and Vishnu in Balinese theatre. Although known for Her terrifying intentions, as scholars have stated, even as ‘widow-witch’, the Goddess Rangda ‘functions in a paradoxically protective way. Within the metaphoric world of the Calon Arang story, Rangda is the mistress of black magic and the container of all that is monstrous and evil. But within the effective structure of ritual, She functions as the protector of the community, defusing the power of those who practice black magic and directly challenging human malefactors to match their powers against hers.'” [9]

I would like to leave you with this final thought:  Johanna Stuckey wrote an article entitled “Goddesses and Demons: Some Thoughts” and puts it best as stated here, “These female demons [Rangda, LamashtuLilithMedusa] from different cultures have much in common, and their commonalities reflect male-dominated societies’ disapproval of females of the uppity sort, as well as implicit approval for their opposite, the feminine, biddable wives and daughters. The demons are all physically hideous. All are anti-mothers in one way or another, and all are childless or give birth in abnormal ways. All are dangerous and threaten humans with both diseases and death. All live in exile or, at least, are distanced from the cultures that produced them. All, eventually even the dead Medusa, partake to some extent of deity. All are independent of men and to a large extent autonomous. Finally, all are brought under control by males.

"The Rangda" by adhytcadelic

All possess characteristics that undermine or challenge male-dominated societies. War-like societies such as those of Mesopotamia could find a use for Inanna/Ishtar‘s warrior characteristics. So She became a war Goddess, while Her sexual self became a Goddess of love. Thus divided, She was less of a threat to a developing patriarchy. Demonizing the dangerous elements of a minor goddess performed a similar function, and it also provided a scapegoat for when things went wrong, as they always would. Perhaps at one time Rangda was a sea Goddess, who became evil because of where She came from. It seems likely that Lamashtu and Lilith were once minor deities who both caused infant death and disease and protected against them.  And Medusa — what do we make of Her? Certainly male-dominated society co-opted Her “malevolence” to serve its burgeoning state. Her snaky head became a powerful warding-off or apotropaic device on shields and on temples and other buildings to be protected. Such analysis is not new, I know, but I am surprised to find that it applies just as neatly to Balinese culture as it does to cultures that fed into ours. Still, perhaps this shouldn’t surprise me.” [10]

 

* It’s important to note that in the Balinese culture the sky is divine while the sea is demoniac, as in the best patriarchal tradition. Rangda is probably the heir of a pre-Hindu Goddess of the sea turned into a demon the same way that often occurred in history at the changeover with patriarchal cultures. [11]

 

 

 

Sources:

Lysianassa. Bukisa.com, “The History and Significance of the Goddess Rangda“.

Pirera, Anna. Goddess Gallery, “Kali“.

Stella. Goddesses and Gods, “Goddess Rangda“.

Stuckey, Johanna. MatriFocus: Cross-Quarterly for the Goddess Woman (Beltane 2007 Vol 6 – 3), “Goddesses and Demons: Some Thoughts“.

Wikipedia, “Rangda“.

Suggested Links:

Padangtegal, Desa Adat. Monkeyforestbud.com, “The Temples: Indian Hindu Gods and Goddesses“.

Goddess Artio

"Artio, Goddess of the Chase" by Howard David Johnson

“Artio’s themes are spring, abundance and providence.  Her symbols are bears and fruit.  Artio is a Swiss bear Goddess who awakens in the spring to announce the season and share fruit from Her storehouse. This is the fruit of daily providence and abundance, even as the earth itself will soon show signs of abundant life and fruitfulness. In Celtic tradition, She is also the Goddess of wildlife, and She was likely called on during hunting rituals.

As Artio emerges from Her sleep, the Swiss burn an effigy of winter to literally destroy the cold with fire and light. An easy way to do this yourself is to burn a fruity cookie (carefully) in the oven, then disperse the ashes to the earth.

If you’ve spent a lot of time at home lately, definitely emerge from that ‘cave’, experience life fully and begin preparing the soil of your spirit for spring’s growth-oriented energy.

Put together a fresh fruit salad today and invoke Artio’s providence, saying something like this:

‘Artio, see my needs and bless
bring to me fruitfulness!’

Share the fruit with family and friends to permeate their life with Artio’s abundance. If you want to preserve your resources as well as inspire abundance, use canned fruit instead (which equates with Artio’s stores during hibernation).”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Artio is the Continental Celtic Goddess of fertility and wild animals, especially bears, and in fact that is exactly what Her name means, ‘Bear’.  She is known from a number of inscriptions found in Switzerland, Luxembourg anf Germany and is a Goddess of the harvest and of fertility who, typically, is depicted in bear form. The female bear usually conceives in the autumn and spends Her hibernation time pregnant. Bears are associated with shamanism, as the hibernation period in winter symbolizes the journey into darkness and their emergence in spring with cubs the return to the light bearing the wisdom gained on the journey.” [1]

The Goddess Artio as depicted in the Muri statuette group, presumably in bear and in human form.

Artio is seen above in a statue found now in the Historisches Museum in Bern, Switzerland.  The bronze statue shows a large bear facing a woman, perhaps the Goddess in Her human form, with a small tree behind the bear.  The woman, or Goddess, is carrying a bowl of fruit on Her lap, perhaps feeding the bear.  The sculpture has a large rectangular bronze base, which bears an inscription:

“Deae Artioni / Licinia Sabinilla”
To the Goddess Artio (or Artionis), from Licinia Sabinilla

“Other inscriptions to this Goddess have been found at Daun and Stockstadt in Germany; also in Weilerback in Luxembourg.

"The Bear Goddess" by Sabattier

The Celts ancestors came from what is today Germany, Austria and Switzerland bringing their Gods and Goddess with them. The Helvetii , a celtic tribe who migrated from the area of modern Bavaria to Switzerland worshipped Artio as the ‘She- Bear’. This tribe eventually became a part of the Roman Empire and the Gaul and Roman Gods and Goddess took on each other’s attributes. Some believe that Artio then was absorbed into the Goddess of Diana as the tribes were taken over by the Romans. Both the Roman Goddess Diana and the Greek Goddess Artemis are attributed to bears in myths and may have gained this from the followers of Artio.

"Artemis, Goddess of the Hunt" by violscraper

Throughout all of Celtic Gaul and Britian there have been similar deities that appear in bear form as the Goddess of wildlife. Making this an important part of their spiritual life.

The Celtic tribes sometimes shortened Her name to Art; in Irish, Art meant ‘God’; but its earlier meaning was ‘Bear Goddess.’ Stone figures of bears have been found in many digs of ancient Celtic past; some were found during the restoration of Ireland’s Armagh Cathedral in 1840. Based on the niches found in caves across Europe which hold bones and skulls of bears have been found to be arranged with care; many archaeologist have claimed that the bear is the oldest European deity.

About 6,000 years ago the ancestors of the Celts invented the ‘Old Europe Script’ it is known to be the earliest proto-language. The first ever written sentence reads: ‘The Bear Goddess and the Bird Goddess are the Bear Goddess indeed.’ Dr. Toby Griffin who has been working on the translation of this script believes that this means the Bear Goddess and Bird Goddess have merged into a single deity. This deity later became Celtic Goddess Artio, Roman Goddess Diana and the Greek Goddess Artemis.

Saint Ursula

Some believe She was absorbed into Christianity as The British Saint Ursula (‘Little Female Bear’) a Latinized form of the Saxon ‘Ursel’ meaning (‘She Bear’). Her feast day is October 21 which would follow along with the harvest attribute of Artio.” [2]

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