Tag Archive: enki


Goddess Nina

“Nina’s themes are health, cooperation, dreams, magic and meditation. Her symbols are lions, fish and serpents (Her sacred animals). A very ancient mother Goddess figure in Mesopotamia, Nina has many powers, including healing, herb magic, meditation, dream interpretation and helping civilization along when needed. Today we will be focusing on Her healthful attributes and knowledge of herbs to improve well-being for the winter months.

Pan-American Health Day focuses on worldwide cooperation in the public health field. On the home front, do everything possible to make your home and body healthy and strong. Beginning in your living space, wash the floors using sage water and burn a sage smudge stick. This herb decreases germ infestation and is magically aligned with Nina’s energy. As you go through your home, carry a small bell and add an incantation like this:

‘Nina, come and make us well
banish sickness with the ringing of this bell.’

Ring the bell in each room at the end of the incantation. In many religious traditions, bells are considered to scare away the evil influences that cause sickness.

To overcome a troublesome malady, put a picture of one of Nina’s sacred animals under your pillow to invoke a healing dream. This tradition is very old and sometimes results in healthful energy being conveyed through your dream, or in a dream that shows you what to do for the cure.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

First off, I found that Nina is another name the Goddess Inanna.  “Nina, in Assyro-Babylonian mythology, was the daughter of Ea, the god of water, wisdom and technical skill.  Nina is also the Goddess [of] Ninevah, the capital city of ancient Assyria.” [1]

“Ninhursag” by Dalgis Edelson

Then, I ran across this fabulous article entitled “Nina: Ancient Sumerian Mother of the Mermaids“.  Apparently, “in the cities of Harran and Ur, they called Her ‘Ningal‘ or ‘Nikkal‘; in Nippur, ‘Ninlil‘; and, at the shrine at Al Ubaid, She was ‘Ninhursag‘. When spoken of in conjunction with ‘Nammu‘ and the myth of the formation of the people of the Earth, She was ‘Ninmah’.

In Her capacity as Comforter of Orphans, Caretaker of the Elderly and the Ill, Shelterer of the Homeless and Feeder of the Hungry, She was called ‘Nanshe‘; on the plains of Khafajah, ‘Ninti‘ or ‘Nintu‘; on the Isle of Dilmun, ‘Nin Sikil‘.

When She provided: healing herbs, ‘Ninkarrak‘, ‘Gula’ or ‘Bau‘; dream interpretation, ‘Ninsun‘ or ‘Ninsunna’; beer and wine for holy rites, ‘Ninkasi‘, or, as She arose from the deep waters of the primordial sea, simply: Ama Gal Dingir, the Mother Great Goddess.

The Goddess ‘Atargatis‘ (who maintained a presence at the temple of Ascalon on the Mediterranean Coast, famous for its dove cotes and as a shrine of oracular prophesy) is considered to be quite possibly connected to the early Sumerian images of Nina or Nammu because of Her association with the city of Nineveh (on the Tigris River) and Her primary image as a Goddess of the sea — depicted with the tail of a fish!

“Atargatis” by *PinkParasol                                                                                                                                                     

Whether Atargatis came ashore from the Mediterranean at Ascalon or was born of the waters of the Tigris is a matter for debate. That She bore a daughter who walked on two feet, Shammuramat, is not. Also, it is known that upon Her altars, Her priestesses and devotees sacrificed to Her fish.” [2]

 

 

 

Sources:

Jean. Gather.com, “Nina: Ancient Sumerian Mother of Mermaids“.

Orrar.net, “Goddess Nina“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Sacred-texts.com, “CHAPTER VI: Wars of the City States of Sumer and Akkad“.

Siren, Christopher. Home.comcast.net, “Sumerian Mythology FAQ“.

Goddess Ningal

“Stream” by Hojatollah Shakiba

Ningal’s themes are ecology, nature, abundance, earth and water. Her symbols are water, maritime art, seafood, reeds and marsh plants. This ancient Mesopotamian Goddess abides in regions filled with reeds or marshes, which She also vehemently protects. She is also considered an earth and vegetation Goddess who visits us with abundance during the autumn.

The Wings ‘n Water Festival takes place over two days during the third weekend in September. It’s dedicated to fund-raising for Ningal’s endangered wetlands in southern New Jersey and educating the public on the tremendous value of these regions to the local ecology. To honor this effort and the spirit of Ningal, consider making a donation to a group that strives to protect wetlands (please investigate them first!), and perhaps enjoy a nice seafood chowder as New Englanders do today. This meal reconnects you with the water element and Ningal’s fertility.

For tokens that bear Ningal’s power into your home, look to cattails, lily pads, mosses, indoor water fountains, or art that depicts these types of things. First thing in the morning, don dark greens, mossy browns, or clothing that depicts reeds or marshy scenes.  Also, drink plenty of water or take a cool bath to create a stronger connection to this element’s power and to commemorate Ningal’s dwelling place.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“Anqet, Goddess of the Nile” by ~ThornErose

“The ‘Great Lady’ of the fruitful earth was courted by the moon god [Nanna], the Sumerian and Ugaritic people said.  He brought Her necklaces of lapis lazuli and – for he was the rain provider – turned deserts into orchards to win Her heart” (Monaghan, p.230).

This Goddess of reeds was the daughter of Enki and Ningikurga and bore to Nanna Utu the sun god, Inanna, and in some texts, Ishkur.  She is chiefly recognised at Ur, and was probably first worshipped by cow-herders in the marsh lands of southern Mesopotamia. [1]

Upon further exploration of Ningal, I came across this very informative and in depth piece from GatewaysToBabylon.com entitled “Ningal: The Joyous Bride, Initiator of the Mysteries of Femininity”.  It explains:

“Ningal’s character as far as the myths where She figures is concerned comprehend two fundamental phases in the life of Every Woman. She is first the beloved daughter and maiden who becomes the joyous Bride of Nanna, the Moon Lord, a bit on the shy side who by Herself finds out about love and Her own sexuality wooing and being wooed by the most courteous and impetuous of all the young Anunnaki gods, Nanna the Moon, the Torch of the Night, the firstborn of Enlil and Ninlil, the Prince of the Gods. Hers and Nanna’s is perhaps the second most beloved of all Mesopotamian courtship songs…Ningal is also connected to Dream Divination and Interpretation, so the link with the Moon in all senses and spheres, and introspection as well. The most beloved of all love stories in Mesopotamia is, of course, the Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi, and Inanna, Ningal’s and Nanna’s daughter, is the archetypal and universal Joyous Bride of world myth and religion.

Secondly, as the mother of Inanna, Ningal features in many of the Sumerian love lyrics that Gwendolyn Leick (Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature, Routledge, 1994) calls The Bridal Songs, defines as ‘the group of texts which feature Inanna as a girl expecting to be married’ (page 66).

“Inanna In The Morning Mist” by ~EroticVisions

Fundamentally, the Bridal Songs [are] concerned with the preparation for and the anticipation of wedding bliss, when groom and bride meet on the threshold of the bride’s home. They talk very much about the first longings and joyous expectation the young couple feel to meet in public or in hiding to get to know each. Ningal in the Bridal Songs is Inanna’s loving mother and initiator of the young Goddess in the Mysteries of Femininity. It is to Her that Inanna runs to upon the arrival of Dumuzi in their home, and Ningal gladly answers the girl’s questions and guide Her on what to wear, say, act and expect from the upcoming events. Indeed, we could very well say that Ningal preceeds the archetypal Fairy Goddessmothers of later fairy tales.

Here lies a profound healing for the Feminine in all levels and spheres, because it is clear the bond and trust between Ningal the mother and Inanna, the daughter, as well as the embedded social norm that a girl’s initiator into full adulthood should be preferably her mother. Incidentally, in Enlil and Ninlil, Ninlil’s mother offers the advice of caution, to which Ninlil and Enlil paid lip service.

I may risk a hunch that nowhere in world myth and religion is a mother-and-daughter relationship so joyous and trusting on both sides such as in Ningal and Inanna.

We can see therefore that Inanna expresses all that Ningal as a young lady could not tell Her mother Ningikuga about Nanna, and it is clear to see that having learnt to assert Herself with Nanna, Ningal empowered Her only daughter to express Her feelings, to act and prepare Herself to welcome the beloved into Her life.

Finally, it is Ningal’s sad fate to lament the downfall and destruction of Ur, Her city, in the famous Lamentation over the Destruction of Ur. In the second millennium before common era, if not earlier, She was introduced to Syria probably via Harran, the ancient centre of moon-worship. In Ugarit She was known as Nikkal.” [2]

Sources:

Gatewaystobabylon.com, “The Joyous Bride, Initiator of the Mysteries of Femininity“.

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Ningal”.

Wikipedia, “Ningal“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Black, Jeremy & Anthony Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, “Ningal“.

Crystalinks.com, “Sumerian Gods“.

Goddess-Guide.com, “Sumerian Goddesses“.

Green, Tamara M. The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran.

Lishtar. Gatewaystobabylon.com,Nanna and Ningal or: A Young God Meets Young Goddess – Sumerian Style“.

Moss, Robert. Blog.beliefnet.com, “The Warning from Ur: Don’t lose the Goddess’ gift of dreams“.

MXTODIS123. Reclaimingthedarkgoddess.blogspot.com, “Ningal and Nanna, A Love Story“.

Took, Thalia. The Obscure Goddess Online Directory, “Nikkal“.

Wikipedia, “Lament for Ur“.

Goddess Ninkasi

* For today’s entry, Patricia Telesco names “Braciaca” as today’s Goddess. However, my research revealed that Braciaca is “an obscure god of Roman Britain remembered in an inscription at Haddon House, Derbyshire” [1]  and was associated with Bacchus (Dionysus) and Mars [2].  I was going to do an entry on his consort if he had one, but apparently nothing is known of him except for a single inscription on an altarstone found at Haddon Hall, Derby, Derbyshire. [3]  Since Braciaca was associated with malt and is pretty much accepted to be a god of brewing, I am focusing today’s entry on the Goddess Ninkasi, the Sumerian Goddess of beer.

“Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian matron Goddess of the intoxicating beverage, beer.

Her father was Enki, the lord Nudimmud, and Her mother was Ninti, the queen of the Abzu. She is also one of the eight children created in order to heal one of the eight wounds that Enki receives. Furthermore, She is the Goddess of alcohol. She was also borne of ‘sparkling fresh water.’ She is the Goddess made to ‘satisfy the desire’ and ‘sate the heart.’ She would prepare the beverage daily.

 

Sumerian Beer Recipe, 3200 BCE

The Sumerian written language and the associated clay tablets are among the earliest human writings. Scholarly works from the early 1800s onward have developed some facility translating the various Sumerian documents. Among these is a poem with the English title, ‘A Hymn to Ninkasi‘. The poem is, in effect, a recipe for the making of beer. A translation from the University of Oxford describes combining bread, a source for yeast, with malted and soaked grains and keeping the liquid in a fermentation vessel until finally filtering it into a collecting vessel.” [4]

 

 

Woman brewing beer in ancient Egypt

In a detailed article entitled Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddess of Beer, Johanna Stucky writes, “Not only was Nin-kasi Herself the beer — ‘given birth by the flowing water…’ (Black, Cunningham, Robson, and Zólyomi 2004: 297) — but She was the chief brewer of the gods. So it is not surprising to learn that, in early times in ancient Sumer (southern Mesopotamia), brewers were usually female. Women made beer at home for immediate consumption, since it did not keep. It is possible also that temple brewers were priestesses of Nin-kasi. Later, when beer production became an industry, men seem to have taken over the process, but women still made beer for home use (Homan 2004: 85). Perhaps because they brewed the beer, women were often tavern keepers. For instance, Siduri, a minor Goddess whom Gilgamesh met at the end of the earth, was a divine tavern keeper.” [5]

 

 

 

 

 

“Ishtar” by Lisa Iris

I did find references that She was associated with wine as well.  On one site, it stated that She actually somehow became “incorporated” into the Goddess Ishtar [6] though I could find no reason or explanation as to how and why.  However, my guess is that because according to Patricia Monaghan, “Ninkasi has been described as another form of Siduri” [7]; and Siduri (meaning “young woman” in Hurrian), maybe an epithet of Ishtar. [8]

 

 

 

Sources:

Answers.com, “Braciaca“.

Celtnet.org.uk, “Brâg“.

Dl.ket.org/latin3/mores/, “Mars Braciaca“.

Inanna.virtualave.net, “The Goddess Ishtar“.

Monaghan, Patricia. Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines, “Ninkasi” (p. 73).

Wikipedia, “Ninkasi“.

Wikipedia, “Siduri“.

Stuckey, Johanna. Matrifocus.com, “Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddess of Beer“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Beeradvocate.com, “Ninkasi, the Sumerian Goddess of Brewing and Beer“.

Faraci, Devin. Badassdigest.com, “The Badass Hall of Fame: Ninkasi“.

Frothnhops.com, “Ancient Gods of Beer“.

Goddess-Guide.com, “Sumerian Goddesses“.

Peyrafitte, Nicole. Nicolepeyrafitte.com/blog/, “Ninkasi: ‘The Lady who fills the Mouth’“.

 

And just for funNinkasibrewing.com

Goddess Inanna

“Inanna – Goddess of Goddesses” by book-of-light

“Inanna’s themes are the sky, Universal Awareness and Law, movement, peace, unity, love and leadership. Her symbols are roses, lions, wands encrusted with stones and dates.  The Sumerian Lady of the Heavens looks down upon the world, seeing it in wholeness and unity. Her gentle tears wash from heaven, putting out the emotional fires that keep people apart in this world, or anywhere in the Universe. Inanna oversees matters of love, divination, wine making and leadership just to name a few. In works of art, She is depicted wearing a horned headdress and sprouting wings.

On August 20, 1977, Voyager 2 was launched into space, bearing a message of peace and welcome to any alien lifeforms that might find it. As it travels, are reminded of what a truly big place the Universe is and of the importance of making our part of it better under Inanna’s guidance and care.

To make yourself an Inanna wand for directing magical energy designed to manifest peace, oneness, love or leadership, take a large rose twig (or any fallen branch) and let it dry. Encrust this with an amethyst. During spells and rituals, point the crystal in the direction you want the energy to travel.

Finally, leave Inanna an offering of wine at dawn (She is the morning star) to attract Her power to your day.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“St. Ishtar” by ~TerezBellydance

Thalia Took tells us “Inanna, which means ‘Queen of Heaven’, is the Sumerian Great Goddess and forerunner of the Babylonian Ishtar, with whom She shares similar legends. Sumer was a culture located in what is now the southern half of Iraq, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, known as the ‘Cradle of Civilization’. It was one of the earliest civilizations on this Earth.

Inanna is the First Daughter of the Moon, and the Star of Morning and Evening. Like Anat and Aphrodite (who is believed to have a Phoenician origin) She is linked to the planet Venus and is a love-Goddess.” [1]

Patricia Monaghan tells us that “the Sumerians knew how civilization had come to the ancient Near East, and here is how they told the tale.

Across the immeasurable distances of the sweetwater abyss lived Enki, god of wisdom, and with him were the Tablets of Destiny and other magic civilizing implements. These were his treasures, and he kept them from humankind. But Enki’s daughter–Inanna, the crafty queen of heaven–took pity on the miserable primitives of earth and fitted Her boat to travel to Her father’s hall. There She was grandly welcomed with a banquet of food and wine. Wise he may have been, but Enki loved his daughter beyond wisdom, so much that he took cup after cup from Her at table and then, drunk, promised Her anything She desired. Instantly Inanna asked for the Tablets of Destiny and 100 other objects of culture. What could a fond father do but grant the request?

“Semiramis” by ~kk-graphics

Inanna immediately loaded the objects onto the boat of heaven and set sail for Her city, Erech. Awakening the next day from his stupor, Enki remembered what he had done–and regretted it. But he was incapacitated by a hangover as massive as the previous evening’s pleasure, and he could not pursue his daughter until he recovered. By then, of course, Inanna had gained the safety of Her kingdom, and even the seven tricks Enki played on Her did not regain him his treasures.

And the Sumerians knew how the various seasons came to the desert in which they lived. It started long ago, when the lovely queen of heaven had two suitors, the farmer Enkidu and the shepherd Dumuzi. Both brought Her gifts; both wooed Her with flattery. Her brother urged the farmer’s suit, but the soft woolens that Dumuzi brought tipped the scales of Inanna’s heart. And so Dumuzi became the Goddess’ favorite, in a tale like Cain and Abel‘s that must have recorded a common dispute in the days when the new agricultural science was gaining ground from the nomadic culture of the cattle and sheep herders.

It was not long before Dumuzi grew arrogant in his favored position. But that leaps ahead in the story, for first Inanna–compelled, some say, by curiosity, while others accuse the Goddess of ambition–made plans to descend from Her sky throne and visit the underworld. She arranged with her prime minister, Ninshuba, that if She did not return within three days and three nights, he would stage mourning ceremonies and would appeal to the highest deities to rescue Her. And then Inanna began Her descent.

“The Decent of Inanna” by ~Blazesnbreezes

At the first of the seven gates of the underworld, the Goddess was stopped by the gatekeeper, Neti, who demanded part of Her attire. So it was at each gate. Piece by piece, Inanna gave up Her jewelry and clothing until She stood splendid and naked before Eriskegal, the naked black haired Goddess of death, who turned Her eyes of stone on the Goddess from the upper world.

At that Inanna lost all life and hung for three days and three nights a corpse in the realm of death. When Inanna failed to return to Her sky kingdom, Ninshuba did as instructed. Enki, the Goddess’s father, came to Her aid. Fashioning two strange creatures, Kurgurra and Kalaturra, from the dirt beneath his fingernails, he sent them into the wilderness of the afterlife with food and water to revive the lifeless Inanna.

But no one can leave the underworld unless a substitute be found to hang forever naked in the land of doom. And so demons followed the Goddess as She ascended to Her kingdom. One after another, the demons grabbed the gods they met. Each in turn Inanna freed, remembering good deeds they had performed for Her. But when Inanna reached Her holy city, Erech, She found that Her paramour Dumuzi had set himself up as ruler in Her stead. Angered at his presumption, the Goddess commanded that he be taken as Her substitute to Eriskegal’s kingdom. Luckily for Dumuzi, his loving sister Gestinanna followed him to the underworld and won from Eriskegal her brother’s life for half each year-the half of the year when the desert plants flower, for Dumuzi was the god of vegetation.

“Innana, Queen of Heaven” by buechnerstod

In some versions of the tale it was Inanna Herself, not Gestinanna, who freed Dumuzi. But Gestinanna’s name incorporates that of the other Goddess, and Inanna Herself was sometimes said to be Dumuzi’s mother, while Ninsun claimed that role in other versions. All these apparent contradictions cease to be problematical, however, if one extends the ‘three persons in one god’ concept to this trinity of Sumerian divinities. Then we see that the mother, the lover, and the sister were all aspects of a single grand figure: the queen of heaven, who may have been the lifegiving sun itself, as able to parch the earth into a desert as to reclaim vegetation seasonally from beneath the earth’s surface” (Monaghan, p. 160 -161).

“Inanna’s descent to the Underworld is similar to the journey of the later Goddess Ishtar, with some important differences–Inanna goes to the Underworld to learn of the wisdom of death and rebirth. To be released from Death She must choose a substitute, and offers up Dumuzi, who in Her absence has not mourned. With Dumuzi gone, His sister Geshtinanna, Goddess of Wine, went frantically searching and eventually a bargain was struck: Dumuzi would remain half the year in the Underworld, and Geshtinanna would take His place in the Land of the Dead for the rest of the year.” [2]

“Inanna” by Hrana Janto

 

ASSOCIATIONS: (From my the results of my Goddess Archetype Quiz taken at Goddessgift.com)

General: Ringposts, gates, planet Venus (morning and evening stars), eight-pointed star/rosette, breastplate, bundle or reeds, bow and arrow, Friday and the number 15.

Animals: Sheep, lions, owls, serpents, and scorpions.

Plants: Pomegranate, Tree of Life, grains, reeds and rushes, hemp, cedar, cypress, lotus blossom, monkshood and all herbs.

Perfumes/Scents: Frankincense, myrrh, lotus, amber oil, cedar wood, cypress, cinnamon, and bitter orange.

Gems and Metals: Silver, carnelian, obsidian, lapis lazuli, moonstone and copper.

Colors: Silver, gold, blood red, and green.

Element: Air

 

 

 

 

Sources:

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Inanna”.

Took, Thalia. A-Muse-ing Grace Gallery, “Inanna“.

Turnbull, Sharon. Goddess Quiz – Inanna.

 

 

Suggested Links:

BellaDonna. Order of the White Moon, “Erishkegal, Lady of Shadows“.

Bianca. Order of the White Moon, “Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth“.

Goddess-guide.com, Ereshkigal“.

Goddess-guide.com, “Inanna“.

Goddessgift.com, “Inanna, Ancient Goddess of Sumer“.

Ishtara. Order of the White Moon, “Inanna“.

Laurel. Goddessschool.com, “Inanna“.

Moon, Mary Scarlett & Callista Deep River. Inanna.virtualave.net, “INANNA: Journey to the Dark Center“.

Mydailygoddess.blogspot.com, “Inanna: Embracing the Shadow“.

PaganNews.com, “Inanna/Ishtar“.

Revel, Anita. igoddess.com, “Inanna: self-discovery queen“.

Stuckey, Johanna. Matrifocus.com, “Inanna, Goddess of ‘Infinite Variety’“.

Wikipedia, “Inanna“.

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