Tag Archive: ancestors


An absolutely wonderful piece on the importance of our Ancestors. “Ancestors are one of the sources of our lives. They are situated within the larger Source of Life on this planet, our Mother Earth. Our Mother Earth is not an abstract principle. The Source of All Life is embodied in specific times and places. When thanking the Earth for the gift of life, we can also remember the ancestors whose lives have shaped and made ours possible. ” – Carol P. Christ

carol p. christ 2002 color“I am Carol Patrice Christ, daughter of Jane Claire Bergman, daughter of Lena Marie Searing, daughter of Dora Sofia Bahlke, daughter of Mary Hundt who came to Michigan from Mecklenburg, Germany in 1854.  I come from a long line of women, known and unknown, stretching back to Africa.”

Like many Americans, my ancestral history was lost and fragmented due to emigration, religious and ethnic intermarriage, and movement within the United States.  Though one of my grandmothers spoke proudly of her Irish Catholic heritage and one of my grandfathers acknowledged his Swedish ancestry, I was raised to think of myself simply as “American,” “Christian” and “middle class.”  Ethnic and religious differences were erased, and few stories were told. 

Over the past two years, I have begun to discover details of my ancestral journey, which began in Africa, continued in the clan of Tara, and was marked by the Indo-European invasions. …

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“Frozen” by ~RuslanKadiev

“Mina Koya’s themes are weather, health, ghosts and blessings. Her symbol is salt. The salt Goddess of the Pueblo Native Americans, Mina Koya is often venerated during autumn festivals for Her power to cleanse, protect and preserve things, including our homes and traditions. Her healing power becomes all the more important as winter’s chilly hold gets stronger.

A New Mexican festival, Shalako is an all-night ritual of dancing and chanting to bless homes, commemorate the dead, bring good weather, and improve health for all participants. One tradition that honors Mina Koya and draws Her well-being into the sacred place of home is that of noise making. Take a flat-bottomed pan and sprinkle salt on it. Bang this once in every room of the house (so some of the salt shakes off). This banishes negativity and evil, replacing it with Mina Koya’s blessings. To improve the effect, chant and dance afterward, sweeping up the salt and keeping it for the weather charm that follows. Or, flush the salt down the toilet to flush out any maladies.

If it’s been wet or snowy and you need a reprieve, bind a little salt in a white cloth and bury it. The weather should change temporarily soon thereafter. This bundle will also protect your home and its residents from damage by harsh weather for as long as it stays in the ground nearby.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

I could find no information on a Goddess called Mina Koya.  I did however find a related Goddess (similar attributes – perhaps same Goddess, just a different name?) called Ma’l Oyattsik’i.  Ma’l Oyattsik’i is a Zuni Goddess and is called “The Salt Mother. Annual barefoot pilgrimages have been made for centuries on the trail to Her home, the Zuni Salt Lake.” [1]

Aerial photo of Zuni Salt Lake [AirPhoto]

On Preservationnation.org, it states: “Located in a remote region of western New Mexico, Zuni Salt Lake and the surrounding area (known as the Sanctuary Zone) are considered sacred ground by no less than six Native American tribes. The lake is particularly significant to members of the Zuni Tribe, who believe that it gives life to Ma’l Oyattsik’I, Salt Woman, one of the tribe’s central deities, and has long been an important source of salt for domestic and ceremonial use. In recognition of the sites’ significance, the National Park Service listed Zuni Salt Like on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.” It is currently on the 11 Most Endangered Historic Places list. [2]

Art by josephxengraver

I found a lovely story on Sacred-texts.com about the Goddess of Salt that I’d like to share with you.  “Between Zuni and Pescado is a steep mesa, or table-land, with fantastic rocks weathered into tower and roof-like prominences on its sides, while near it is a high natural monument of stone. Say the Zunis: The Goddess of salt was so troubled by the people who lived near Her domain on the sea-shore, and who took away Her snowy treasures without offering any sacrifice in return, that She forsook the ocean and went to live in the mountains far away. Whenever She stopped beside a pool to rest She made it salt, and She wandered so long about the great basins of the West that much of the water in them is bitter, and the yield of salt from the larger lake near Zuni brings into the Zuni treasury large tolls from other tribes that draw from it.

Here She met the turquoise god, who fell in love with Her at sight, and wooed so warmly that She accepted and married him. For a time they lived happily, but when the people learned that the Goddess had concealed Herself among the mountains of New Mexico they followed Her to that land and troubled Her again until She declared that She would leave their view forever.

She entered this mesa, breaking Her way through a high wall of sandstone as She did so. The arched portal through which She passed is plainly visible. As She went through, one of Her plumes was broken off, and falling into the valley it tipped upon its stem and became the monument that is seen there. The god of turquoise followed his wife, and his footsteps may be traced in outcrops of pale-blue stone.” [3]

In another version of the story, Salt Woman gave salt to the priests who followed Her and instructed them in the proper way to gather salt.  According to the Navajo, Salt Woman was one of the Diyin Dineh, or Holy People. [4]

 

 

 

Sources:

Native American Mythology A to Z, “Salt Woman“.

Preservationnation.org, “Zuni Salt Lake and Sanctuary Zone“.

Schubert, Rebecca. Zunispirits.com, “The Salt Woman“.

Skinnner, Charles M. Sacred-texts.com, “Goddess of Salt“.

Wikipedia, “Zuni Mythology“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Bastian, Dawn Elaine & Judy K. Mitchel. Handbook of Native American Mythology, “Salt Woman“.

Indianstories.awardspace.com, “Salt Mother Story“.

Skinner, Charles M. Myths and Legends of Our Own Land, Vol. 2, “Goddess of Salt“.

St. Clair, Jeffrey. Counterpunch.org, “The Battle for Zuni Salt Lake“.

Twinrocks.com, “Salt Woman“.

Goddess Matariki

“Matariki’s themes are stars, harvest and peace. Her symbols are stars and the number 7. In Polynesian tradition, this Goddess and Her six children became the Pleiades, and they continue to help humans by showing us when to begin harvesting the labors of hand or heart.

From mid- to late November the people of Hawaii take part in special rituals to celebrate the appearance of the Pleiades in the skies, which is the beginning of harvest season. In reverence for this occasion, all war is forbidden. It makes one wish that Matariki and her children appeared around the world all the time!

To encourage similar peacefulness in your own life, and harmony with those around you, carry seven stars in your pocket, wallet, or purse today. You can draw these on paper, use seven typed asterisks, get the marshmallow kind out of a cereal box, or collect seven noodles from a chicken ‘n’ stars can. If you use edible items, eat them at the end of the day to bring serenity to your spirit.

If there’s something you’ve been working on that seems to be taking forever, look to Matariki to show you how to begin effectively manifesting your efforts. Pray, meditate, and watch for unique openings throughout the day, especially after the stars appear in the sky, representing her power.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

“The Pleiades” by Corina Chirila

The only other real mention that I found defining Matariki as a Goddess comes from the Goddess A Day site that states, “To the Maori, the Pleiades are Matariki and her six daughters: Tupu-a-Nuku, Tupu-a-Rangi, Wai-Tii, Wai-Ta, Wai-puna-Rangi, and Uru-Rangi.” [1]

However, the rest of my research found that Matariki wasn’t a Goddess, but is actually the Maori name for the Pleiades.  My research also found that Matariki is the traditional Maori New Year that is celebrated anywhere from late May to early June.  

“Matariki is the Māori name for the seven-star constellation that rises in the north-east before dawn in late May/early June. In Western astronomy it is known the Pleiades, and it forms the shoulder of Taurus the Bull.  Matariki marks the start of a new phase of life. It is a time of festivity for Māori, the tangata whenua, or first people of New Zealand.  Matariki is an important time in the Māori calendar and is associated with the start of the cold season when the pātaka kai (food storehouses) are full and the land is at its most unproductive.” [1]

“The Matariki star constellation marked a time for starting all things new, this was a particularly important period for new crops to be planted and the preserving of old crops to be finished. When Matariki was sighted ceremonial offerings of food were planted for the gods Uenuku and Whiro to ensure a good harvest for the coming year. Even the stars themselves were looked upon for guidance as to how successful the coming season would be; the brighter the star constellation the warmer the year was destined and the better the harvest was thought to be.

The timing of Matariki fell at the end of a harvest and food stores were full. Meat, fruits, herbs and vegetables had been gathered and preserved and the migration of certain fish ensured a great period of feasts. Matariki was seen as a time to share with each other, for family and friends to come together and share in the gifts that the land and sea had provided for them.” [2]

Similar to Samhain, “traditionally, Matariki was a time to remember those who had died in the last year. But it was also a happy event – crops had been harvested and seafood and birds had been collected. With plenty of food in the storehouses, Matariki was a time for singing, dancing and feasting.” [3]

Matariki Across the World

“Sprinling Stars – Matariki” by Ira Mitchell

“Matariki’s seven stars can be viewed from anywhere in the world and the constellation is globally recognised as a key navigational aid for sailors. It features in many cultures and acts as an important signal for seasonal celebrations around the world.

Europe: Pleiades, the Greek name for the cluster, is described as seven sisters, the daughters of Atlas and Pleone. In Greece, several major temples face straight towards Matariki, as does Stonehenge in England.

Māori and Pacific cultures: In Māori and Pacific stories, Matariki is described as a mother surrounded by Her six daughters.

Japan: In Japan, Matariki is known as Subaru.

Other: The Matariki cluster of stars has also been celebrated by Africans, American Indians, Australian Aborigines, Chinese and Vikings.

Unity, harvesting and planting, paying tributes to ancestors and looking ahead to the future are all themes of these celebrations.” [4]

 

 

 

Sources:

Sabrina. Goddess A Day, “Matariki“.

Taitokerau.co.nz, “Matariki“.

Teara.govt.nz, “Story – Matariki – Māori New Year“.

Wellington.govt.nz, “Matariki – Overview“.

 

Suggested Links:

Matarikievents.co.nz, “Matariki – Home“.

Ngawhetu.com, “Māori New Year“.

Tetaurawhiri.govt.nz, “Matariki“.

Wikipedia, “Matariki“.

 

Goddess Ra’i Ra’i

“Ra’i ra’i’s themes are children, youthfulness, recreation, play, joy and fairies. Her symbols are sunlight and white or pastel-yellow items.  In Polynesia, Ra’i ra’i is the Goddess of unbridled happiness and sunshine, lighting the way for truly joyful living. When Ra’i ra’i came to earth to mother the first humans, She brought with Her tiny frolicsome fairies who live in the elements, often playing with people and watching over nature.

Follow Samoan tradition of White Sunday and wear white to inspire your inner child, then go enjoy the children in and around your life. In this part of the world, the entire day today is dedicated to children and activities to promote their delight.

Go for a nature walk and look for signs of Ra’i Ra’i’s fairy friends. Small circles of mushrooms, a ring of trees, the sound of tiny bells all indicate the fey are nearby watching you!

Get outside and allow this Goddess’s warm light into your body through the sun today. If the weather isn’t cooperating, wear any golden or pastel-yellow items today as a type of color therapy to inspire Ra’i Ra’i’s youthful energy within.

Definitely take time to do something frisky today. If there’s a recreational activity you enjoy, go play! This invokes Ra’i ra’i’s happiness and pleases this Goddess greatly.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

Art by Susan Seddon Boulet

So, I couldn’t dig too much up on today’s Goddess.  I’m not entirely sure as to how factual all of this information is, as it kind of has a New Age-y type feel to it (not that that’s necessarily a bad thing, I just really prefer more scholarly type references) but I will share it with you anyways.  From what I could piece together: “Ra’i Ra’i is the name given in the Tumuripo Story of Creation [I could find no reference to or definition of ‘Tumuripo’] for the divine progenitress of the Hawaiian people (the People of Havai’i). According to Melville, ‘Ra’i Ra’i was chosen, by royal command of the Goddess of the Sun, Lady Ra, to perform a mission of transfiguration. She was sent to deliver into being upon this earth the human beings who were soon to blossom as branches of the Tree of Life in Po’ (the Celestial Realm of the Gods)  [I’m thinking something similar to this]. The place which Ra’i Ra’i established for this creation was the ‘Garden of Sunshine’ in the Land of Rua (Mu) [the name of a hypothetical continent that disappeared at the dawn of human history]. There to help Her in the Garden where the Menehunes, whom Melville equates to ‘brownies‘. He states that the little people who populated Hawai’i in the early period of the islands were ‘Manahunes’ and were simply a human dwarf race, not related to the Menehunes.

In addition to the Menehunes, the other nature beings in the Garden of Sunshine are the following. I am giving Melville’s comparisons to western names for them as well as their Hawaiian counterparts. These western comparisons may or may not be entirely accurate in my estimation. The descriptions come from Melville’s translations of The Tumruipo chant (again, I could find no reference for this chant).

a) eepas (elves)

b) tup’ua (fairies — tiny winged creature, feminine in shape who lived above the ground in the blossoming branches)

c) mo’o (water nymphs–shaped like mermaids)” [1]

* Now on Sacred-texts.com, it states that “Hawaiian families count the Menehune as their ancestral spirits and helpers, and these little people play the part of benevolent godparents to their descendants. On the other hand, Hawaiians speak of eepa spirits who are tricky rather than helpful to mankind. A family story told in Kau district on Hawaii illustrates the benevolent activities of the Menehune spirits and many examples occur in old legends like those of LakaHainakolo, and Kawelo.

Back to Ra’i ra’i – Frank Joseph in his book The Lost Civilization of Lemuria writes, “In Hawaiin myth itself, the firstborn of Ra’i ra’i, a sun Goddess, was Mu Re, ancestor of the islands’ earliest inhabitants.” [2]  According to James Churchward, Ra Mu was the King-High Priest of the Motherland – Mu (Ra meaning “Sun” and Mu meaning “Land”).  Churchward goes on to explain that, “Many generations before, the people had selected a king and added the prefix Ra to his name. He then became the hieratical head and emperor under the name ‘Ra Mu’.  The empire received the name ‘Empire of the Sun’.

As high priest, Ra Mu was the representative of the Deity [whose name was never spoken and was worshiped through a symbol out of deep reverence] in religious teachings. It was thoroughly taught and understood that Ra Mu was not to be worshiped, as he was only representative” (p. 24).

 

I’ve included some “Suggested Links” that don’t necessarily pertain to Ra’i ra’i per se, because I really couldn’t find that much; however, I felt the information in these links were relevant to the overall mythology surrounding Her and the characters of this interesting creation story.

 

 

Sources:

Churchward, James. lost_continent_mu_churchward_1931. (PDF file)

Joseph, Frank. The Lost Civilization of Lemuria, “Hawaiian Motherland” (p. 166 – 169).

Pihanakalani.spiritmythos.org, “Children of the Rainbow“.

 

 

Suggested Links:

Beckwith, Martha Warren. Hawaiian Mythology, “Legend of the Mu People“.

Crystalinks.com, “Lemuria“.

Gudgeon. Jps.auckland.ac.nz, “THE TIPUA-KURA, AND OTHER MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SPIRIT WORLD“.

Jantsang, T. Guardiansofdarkness.com, “Two Articles on Polynesians and Cthulhu Oceanic Mythos“.

Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom.

Marsh, Amy. Waihili.blogspot.com, “A Hidden Meaning of the Mo’o Goddesses?

Mythicalrealm.com, “The Menehune: Also known as Nawao“.

Sacred-texts.com, “Mu and Menehune People“.

Schweitzer, Veronica S. Coffeetimes.com, “Guardian Geckos“.

Wesselman, Hank. Sharedwisdom.com, “Hawaiian Perspectives on the Matrix of the Soul“.

Westervelt, W.D. Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes (Forgotten Books), “Hiiaka’s Battle with Demons” (p. 69).

Westervelt, William Drake. Hawaiian Legends of Ghosts and Ghost Gods, “Aumakuas, or Ancestor-Ghosts“.

Rainbow Serpent

“Rainbow Serpent Dreaming” by Lorraine Williams

“Rainbow Serpent’s themes are beauty, life, joy, fertility, tradition, children and health. Her symbols are flowers, rainbows, rainwater and pearls. The Aborigine Goddess, also sometimes called Julunggul, represents the fertile rains and the waters in the seas. According to tradition, She flows into people’s lives, bringing children, joy, the knowledge of magical healing arts, and protection for sacred traditions.

The city of Queensland, Australia, blossoms around this time of year in a colorful array of flowers. This carnival honors the joy of living, something the Rainbow Serpent embodies.

If you have floral prints, definitely wear them today to inspire the Rainbow Serpent’s ability to flow and adapt, using beauty and happiness as a powerful coping mechanism.

If it rains today, it is a sign of this Goddess’s blessing. Release your inner child and dance in the downpour. Jump in puddles and let Her fertile, productive energy splash freely all over your life and everything around you.

 

To internalize a little of the Rainbow Serpent’s attributes, collect rainwater in a clean pan on or around this date, then steep some edible flower petals (like roses) in the water. Drink or cook with this today so Her power can blossom in your heart.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

The Australian Rainbow Serpent” by Susanne Iles

“In the Australian Aboriginal mythology of Arnhem Land, Julunggul is a rainbow snake Goddess, who oversaw the maturing and initiation of boys into manhood. She was a fertility Goddess, associated with rebirth and the weather.

She is also known as Kalseru.

Another name for this deity, Yurlunggur, is also the name of an extinct genus of madtsoiid snakes (Yurlunngur), specifically named after the Aboriginal myth.” [1]  Some believe that belief in the Rainbow Serpent is closely linked to the Wonambi naracoortensis which is an extinct ancient snake of gigantic proportions.” [2]

Patricia Monaghan says that “the rainbow snake Goddess of Australia was able to be male, to be neuter, or to be androgynous.  She was said to be embodied in the ocean and waterfalls, in pearls and crystals, and in the deep pools in which She lived.  A Goddess of initiations, Julunggul was approached in Arnhem Land by boys who, symbolically swallowed and regurgitated by the mother snake, were vomited out again as men” (p. 173).

“The Snake Painting” by Peter Eglington

“The stories associated with the different types of Rainbow Serpents across Australia depend on the tribe and what part of Australia they come from. Those tribes that experience monsoons depict the Rainbow Serpent as interacting with the sun and the wind to create them in their Dreamtime stories. Those tribes that are more central in Australia and do not experience such turbulent weather tell their tales of a Rainbow Serpent that reflect their own environmental condition.” [2]

Susan Iles explains: “There are as many legends of the Rainbow Serpent as there are tribes of people, but the common elements can be found as follows.

“Kandimalal and the Rainbow Serpent” by Boxer Milner, Billiluna

The All-Mighty Creator formed the Earth and the heavens. However, at the time of creation the Earth in the Dreamtime was flat, colourless and desolate. The Rainbow Serpent descended from the sky and moved over the face of the Earth creating deep valleys and rivers, nourishing the planet and giving it form. Some legends tell the story of the Rainbow Serpent populating the world with plants, humans and animals. Other versions tell of the great serpent calling out to all the living creatures of the planet to come out of hiding and enjoy the land. The wise serpent taught them the laws of community, structure, ethics and respect.

By embracing our mythical past and remembering the wisdom of our ancestors we can re-create the sacred trust between Heaven and Earth to ensure a future for humankind.” [3]

Hhmm…there’s that whole Ancestors theme popping up again… 😉

On the Australia.gov.au website, it explains that “in most stories of the Dreaming, the Ancestor Spirits came to the earth in human form and as they moved through the land, they created the animals, plants, rocks and other forms of the land that we know today. They also created the relationships between groups and individuals to the land, the animals and other people.

Once the ancestor spirits had created the world, they changed into trees, the stars, rocks, watering holes or other objects. These are the sacred places of Aboriginal culture and have special properties. Because the ancestors did not disappear at the end of the Dreaming, but remained in these sacred sites, the Dreaming is never-ending, linking the past and the present, the people and the land.

Our story is in the land … it is written in those sacred places … My children will look after those places, That’s the law.
Bill Neidjie , Kakadu elder.

The Creation or Dreaming stories, which describe the travels of the spiritual ancestors, are integral to Aboriginal spirituality. In many areas there are separate spheres of men’s and women’s stories. Knowledge of the law and of the Dreaming stories is acquired progressively as people proceed through life. Ceremonies, such as initiation ceremonies, are avenues for the passing on of knowledge.

Photo of Uluru/Ayers Rock, Northern Territory, Australia by Lil [Kristen Elsby]

Traditional knowledge, law and religion relies heavily on the Dreaming stories with its rich explanations of land formations, animal behaviour and plant remedies.” [4]

 

And now for your viewing pleasure, a video about the Aboriginal Dreamtime Stories – story by Dick Roughsey and narrrated by David Gulpilil.

 

 

 

Sources:

Australia.gov.au, “The Dreaming“.

Iles, Susan. Susanneiles.com, “The Dragon & Creation: Reclaiming the Sacred“.

Monaghan, Patricia. The New Book of Goddesses and Heroines, “Julunggul”.

Mythicalcreatureslist.com, “Kalseru“.

Wikipedia, “Julunggul“.

 

Suggested Links:

Aboriginalartonline.com, “The Rainbow Serpent“.

Adelaideartscult.weebly.com, “Origins Of The Rainbow Serpent Myth“.

Didjshop.com, “The Rainbow Serpent“.

Expedition360.com, “Dreamtime Stories“. (Includes some suggested critical thinking and writing activities).

Kuchinsky, Charlotte. Voices.yahoo.com, “The Rainbow & Various Myths Surrounding It“.

Muenster.org, “Rainbow Serpent“.

 

Goddess Hybla

“Gaia The Earth Mother” by Peggy Kane

“Hybla’s themes are the earth, ecology, nature and animals. Her symbols are all natural objects.  This Sicilian Goddess presides over earth and nature, tending to all its needs. She also gave birth to humanity and inspires greater earth awareness within us.

Saint Francis of Assisi‘s life is celebrated today because of his gentle relationship with nature, which he considered a family member (often calling animals ‘brothers and sisters’). This is why he became the patron of many environmentalists. To remember him and honor Hybla’s spirit, which he so powerfully displayed, say a prayer for the earth today. Invoke Hybla’s nurturing energy with words like these:
‘Earth Mother, look upon your children;
Look upon the plants – restore the earth’s greenery.
Look upon the animals and protect them from more harm.
Look upon the waters and purify each drop.
Look upon the winds, and cleanse the air.
Take the world gently in you caring arm
and love it back into wholeness once more
Amen.’

Tuck a flower petal or leaf in your pocket or shoe today to keep Hybla’s earth awareness close by. And, if you have pets, today is the perfect time to bless them. Give them special foods, find non-chemical pest repellents, and pamper them with extra love. Remember, life is a network: showing kindness to one strand extends that energy outward to the web.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

This is a new Goddess to me, and quite intriguing, as one set of my grandparents immigrated here from Sicily in the early 1900’s.  She is one that I would personally like to research further and work with since I have a great reverence for the Earth Mother.  Also, now as Samhain grows near, for She is a Goddess of earth with connections to the Underworld and of course my Ancestors.

“The Love Embrace of the Universe” by Frida Kahlo

Patricia Monaghan tells us that Hybla was the greatest Goddess of ancient Sicily and still appears in Italian place names; She was an earth Goddess and ancestor of humanity (p 157).

Hybla is the Sicel Goddess of nature. The Sicels were the original inhabitants of Sicily, and we know of their deities through Greek explorers and writers. Hybla was worshipped on hills in Sicily which had unusual natural phenomena, such as a volcano and mineral springs. The hills were also home to bees that produced some of the finest honey known to the ancient world. Hybla’s name was also seen as Hyblaea, and She became syncretized with the Roman Goddess Venus, who took on the name Venus Victrix Hyblensis.” [1]

Douglas Sladen writes: “A Goddess of the nether world in the Sikel religion not identified with any Greek Goddess, but in Roman times, says Freman, ‘the Goddess of Hybla became identified with the Latin Venus.  But it should be remembered that the Latin Venus was, in Her first estate, a harmless Goddess of growth, falling in well with one aspect of the powers of the nether world.  Her worship is  of course, connected with Etna” (p. 202).

 

 

 

Sources:

Fiorentino, Paolo. Sicily Through Symbolism and Myth: Gates to Heaven and the Underworld, “The Goddess Hybla“.

Sabrina. Goddess A Day, “Hybla“.

Sladen, Douglas. Sicily: The New Winter Resort, An Encyclopedia of Sicily, “Hybla” (p. 202).

 

 

Suggested Links:

Freeman, Edward. History of Sicily V1.

Wikipedia, “Sicels“.

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